Effect of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Treatment on Early Trajectories of Virologic and Immunologic Biomarkers in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19

Tomas O Jensen*, Greg A Grandits, Mamta K Jain, Thomas A Murray, Birgit Grund, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Michael A Matthay, Mahsa Abassi, Magdalena Ardelt, Jason V Baker, Peter Chen, Robin L Dewar, Anna L Goodman, Timothy J Hatlen, Helene C Highbarger, Mark Holodniy, Perrine Lallemand, Sylvain Laverdure, Bradley G Leshnower, David LooneyCharalampos D Moschopoulos, Henry Mugerwa, Daniel D Murray, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Stephanie Nagy-Agren, M Tauseef Rehman, Adam Rupert, Randy A Stevens, Stuart Turville, Amy Weintrob, Katherine Wick, Jens Lundgren, Emily R Ko*, ACTIV-3/TICO Study Group

*Corresponding author for this work

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) failed to show clear benefit for hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Dynamics of virologic and immunologic biomarkers remain poorly understood.

METHODS: Participants enrolled in the Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 trials were randomized to nmAb versus placebo. Longitudinal differences between treatment and placebo groups in levels of plasma nucleocapsid antigen (N-Ag), anti-nucleocapsid antibody, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and d-dimer at enrollment, day 1, 3, and 5 were estimated using linear mixed models. A 7-point pulmonary ordinal scale assessed at day 5 was compared using proportional odds models.

RESULTS: Analysis included 2149 participants enrolled between August 2020 and September 2021. Treatment resulted in 20% lower levels of plasma N-Ag compared with placebo (95% confidence interval, 12%-27%; P < .001), and a steeper rate of decline through the first 5 days (P < .001). The treatment difference did not vary between subgroups, and no difference was observed in trajectories of other biomarkers or the day 5 pulmonary ordinal scale.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that nmAb has an antiviral effect assessed by plasma N-Ag among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, with no blunting of the endogenous anti-nucleocapsid antibody response. No effect on systemic inflammation or day 5 clinical status was observed.

CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04501978.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of infectious diseases
Volume229
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)671-679
Number of pages9
ISSN0022-1899
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Mar 2024

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