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Effect of Empagliflozin on Hemodynamics in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction

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BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2i) improves outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but the mechanism by which they improve outcomes remains unclear.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin on central hemodynamics in patients with HF and HFrEF.

METHODS: This investigator-initiated, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial enrolled 70 patients with HFrEF from March 6, 2018, to September 10, 2019. Patients were assigned to empagliflozin of 10 mg or matching placebo once daily on guideline-driven HF therapy for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was ratio of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) to cardiac index (CI) at peak exercise after 12 weeks. Patients underwent right-heart catheterization at rest and during exercise at baseline and 12-week follow-up.

RESULTS: Patients with HFrEF, mean age of 57 years, mean left-ventricular ejection fraction, 26%, and 12 (17%) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized. There was no significant treatment effect on peak PCWP/CI (-0.13 mm Hg/l/min/m2; 95% confidence interval: -1.60 to 1.34 mm Hg/l/min/m2; p = 0.86). Considering hemodynamics over the full range of exercise loads, PCWP was significantly reduced (-2.40 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval: -3.96 to -0.84 mm Hg; p = 0.003), but not CI (-0.09 l/min/m2; 95% confidence interval: -0.14 to 0.32 l/min/m2; p = 0.448) by empagliflozin. This was consistent among patients with and without type 2 diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stable HFrEF, empagliflozin for 12 weeks reduced PCWP compared with placebo. There was no significant improvement in neither CI nor PCWP/CI at rest or exercise.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number23
Pages (from-to)2740-2751
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 8 Dec 2020

ID: 61426443