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Discovery of thymosin β4 as a human exerkine and growth factor

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  1. RNA-sequencing and immunofluorescence of the myotendinous junction of mature horses and humans

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  2. Muscle-nerve communication and the molecular assessment of human skeletal muscle denervation with aging

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  1. Combinatorial, additive and dose-dependent drug–microbiome associations

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  2. Diurnal variation of magnesium and the mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease

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  3. Insulin resistance is associated with multiple chemical sensitivity in a danish population-based study—DanFunD

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  4. Is sclerostin as bone marker ready for clinical use?

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  • Alba Gonzalez-Franquesa
  • Ben Stocks
  • Melissa L Borg
  • Michael Kuefner
  • Emilie Dalbram
  • Thomas S Nielsen
  • Ankita Agrawal
  • Stanislava Pankratova
  • Alexander V Chibalin
  • Håkan K R Karlsson
  • Sevda Gheibi
  • Marie Björnholm
  • Niklas Rye Jørgensen
  • Christoffer Clemmensen
  • Morten Hostrup
  • Jonas T Treebak
  • Anna Krook
  • Juleen R Zierath
  • Atul S Deshmukh
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Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ secreting exercise-induced factors (exerkines), which play a pivotal role in interorgan cross talk. Using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, we characterized the secretome and identified thymosin β4 (TMSB4X) as the most upregulated secreted protein in the media of contracting C2C12 myotubes. TMSB4X was also acutely increased in the plasma of exercising humans irrespective of the insulin resistance condition or exercise mode. Treatment of mice with TMSB4X did not ameliorate the metabolic disruptions associated with diet induced-obesity, nor did it enhance muscle regeneration in vivo. However, TMSB4X increased osteoblast proliferation and neurite outgrowth, consistent with its WADA classification as a prohibited growth factor. Therefore, we report TMSB4X as a human exerkine with a potential role in cellular cross talk.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology
Volume321
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)C770-C778
ISSN0363-6143
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021

ID: 68675435