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Differential effects of bile acids on the postprandial secretion of gut hormones: a randomized crossover study

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  • Emma Rose McGlone
  • Khalefah Malallah
  • Joyceline Cuenco
  • Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
  • Jens J Holst
  • Royce P Vincent
  • Charlotte Ling
  • Omar A Khan
  • Surabhi Verma
  • Ahmed R Ahmed
  • Julian R F Walters
  • Bernard Khoo
  • Stephen R Bloom
  • Tricia M M Tan
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Bile acids (BA) regulate postprandial metabolism directly and indirectly by affecting the secretion of gut hormones like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The postprandial effects of BA on the secretion of other metabolically active hormones are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on postprandial secretion of GLP-1, oxyntomodulin (OXM), peptide YY (PYY), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon, and ghrelin. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent a mixed meal test 60 min after ingestion of UDCA (12-16 mg/kg), CDCA (13-16 mg/kg), or no BA in a randomized crossover study. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, OXM, PYY, GIP, glucagon, ghrelin, and fibroblast growth factor 19 were measured prior to BA administration at -60 and 0 min (just prior to mixed meal) and 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after the meal. UDCA and CDCA provoked differential gut hormone responses; UDCA did not have any significant effects, but CDCA provoked significant increases in GLP-1 and OXM and a profound reduction in GIP. CDCA increased fasting GLP-1 and OXM secretion in parallel with an increase in insulin. On the other hand, CDCA reduced postprandial secretion of GIP, with an associated reduction in postprandial insulin secretion. Exogenous CDCA can exert multiple salutary effects on the secretion of gut hormones; if these effects are confirmed in obesity and type 2 diabetes, CDCA may be a potential therapy for these conditions.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Oral CDCA and UDCA have different effects on gut and pancreatic hormone secretion. A single dose of CDCA increased fasting secretion of the hormones GLP-1 and OXM with an accompanying increase in insulin secretion. CDCA also reduced postprandial GIP secretion, which was associated with reduced insulin. In contrast, UDCA did not change gut hormone secretion fasting or postprandially. Oral CDCA could be beneficial to patients with obesity and diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)E671-E679
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021

ID: 64874004