Development of an ex-vivo porcine lower urinary tract model to evaluate the performance of urinary catheters

Fabio Tentor*, Brit Grønholt Schrøder, Simon Nielsen, Lars Schertiger, Kristian Stærk, Thomas Emil Andersen, Per Bagi, Lene Feldskov Nielsen

*Corresponding author for this work


Intermittent catheterization is the gold standard method for bladder management in individuals with urinary retention and/or incontinence. It is therefore important to understand the performance of urinary catheters, especially on parameters associated to risks of developing urinary tract infections, and that may impact the quality of life for urinary catheter users. Examples of such parameters include, urine flowrate, occurrence of flow-stops, and residual urine left in the bladder after flow-stop. Reliable in-vitro and/or ex-vivo laboratory models represent a strong asset to assess the performance of urinary catheters, preceding and guiding in-vivo animal studies and/or human clinical studies. Existing laboratory models are generally simplified, covering only portions of the catheterization process, or poorly reflect clinical procedures. In this work, we developed an ex-vivo porcine lower urinary tract model that better reflects the catheterization procedure in humans and allows to investigate the performance of standard of care catheters. The performance of three standard of care catheters was investigated in the developed model showing significant differences in terms of flowrate. No differences were detected in terms of residual volume in the bladder at first flow-stop also when tuning the abdominal pressure to mimic a sitting down and standing up position. A newly discovered phenomenon named hammering was detected and measured. Lastly, mucosal suction was observed and measured in all standard of care catheters, raising the concern for microtrauma during catheterization and a need for new and improved urinary catheter designs. Results obtained with the ex-vivo model were compared to in-vivo studies, highlighting similar concerns.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17818
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 24 Oct 2022


  • Humans
  • Swine
  • Animals
  • Urinary Catheters
  • Urinary Bladder
  • Urinary Catheterization/methods
  • Quality of Life
  • Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
  • Urinary Retention/therapy


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