Development and validation of prognostic machine learning models for short- and long-term mortality among acutely admitted patients based on blood tests

Abstract

UNLABELLED: Several scores predicting mortality at the emergency department have been developed. However, all with shortcomings either simple and applicable in a clinical setting, with poor performance, or advanced, with high performance, but clinically difficult to implement. This study aimed to explore if machine learning algorithms could predict all-cause short- and long-term mortality based on the routine blood test collected at admission.

METHODS: We analyzed data from a retrospective cohort study, including patients > 18 years admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) of Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark between November 2013 and March 2017. The primary outcomes were 3-, 10-, 30-, and 365-day mortality after admission. PyCaret, an automated machine learning library, was used to evaluate the predictive performance of fifteen machine learning algorithms using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

RESULTS: Data from 48,841 admissions were analyzed, of these 34,190 (70%) were randomly divided into training data, and 14,651 (30%) were in test data. Eight machine learning algorithms achieved very good to excellent results of AUC on test data in a of range 0.85-0.93. In prediction of short-term mortality, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), leukocyte counts and differentials, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were the best predictors, whereas prediction of long-term mortality was favored by age, LDH, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), albumin, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).

CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that measures of biomarkers taken from one blood sample during admission to the ED can identify patients at high risk of short-and long-term mortality following emergency admissions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5942
JournalScientific Reports
Volume14
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)5942
ISSN2045-2322
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Mar 2024

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Hospitalization
  • Hematologic Tests
  • Machine Learning

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