Development and Validation of an Assessment Tool for Technical Skills in Handheld Otoscopy

5 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: Handheld otoscopy requires both technical and diagnostic skills, and is often reported to be insufficient after medical training. We aimed to develop and gather validity evidence for an assessment tool for handheld otoscopy using contemporary medical educational standards.

STUDY DESIGN: Educational study.

SETTING: University/teaching hospital.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A structured Delphi methodology was used to develop the assessment tool: nine key opinion leaders (otologists) in undergraduate training of otoscopy iteratively achieved consensus on the content. Next, validity evidence was gathered by the videotaped assessment of two handheld otoscopy performances of 15 medical students (novices) and 11 specialists in otorhinolaryngology using two raters. Standard setting (pass/fail criteria) was explored using the contrasting groups and Angoff methods.

RESULTS: The developed Copenhagen Assessment Tool of Handheld Otoscopy Skills (CATHOS) consists 10 items rated using a 5-point Likert scale with descriptive anchors. Validity evidence was collected and structured according to Messick's framework: for example the CATHOS had excellent discriminative validity (mean difference in performance between novices and experts 20.4 out of 50 points, P < .001); and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94). Finally, a pass/fail score was established at 30 points for medical students and 42 points for specialists in ORL.

CONCLUSION: We have developed and gathered validity evidence for an assessment tool of technical skills of handheld otoscopy and set standards of performance. Standardized assessment allows for individualized learning to the level of proficiency and could be implemented in under- and postgraduate handheld otoscopy training curricula, and is also useful in evaluating training interventions.


Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)715-721
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • evidence-based medical education
  • handheld otoscopy
  • otology
  • standard setting
  • standardized assessment


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