Determinants of house dust, endotoxin, and β-(1→3)-D-glucan in homes of Danish children

G Holst, A Høst, G Doekes, H W Meyer, A M Madsen, T Sigsgaard

15 Citations (Scopus)


Little is known about the geographic variation and determinants of bacterial endotoxin and β-(1,3)-D-glucan in Danish house dust. In a population of 317 children, we: (i) described loads and concentrations of floor dust, endotoxin, and β-(1→3)-D-glucan and (ii) their correlations and (iii) assessed their determinants; (iv) Finally, we compared our findings with previous European studies. Bedroom floor dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for β-(1→3)-D-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found: geometric means (geometric standard deviations) 186 mg/m(2) (4.3) for dust; 5.46 × 10(3) EU/m(2) (8.0) and 31.1 × 10(3) EU/g (2.6) for endotoxin; and 142 μg/m(2) (14.3) and 0.71 × 10(3) μg/g (7.3) for β-(1→3)-D-glucan. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan loads, while endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations were moderately correlated (r = 0.36-0.41) with the dust load. Having a carpet was positively associated with dust load and with endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations. Pet keeping, dwelling type, and dwelling location were determinants of endotoxin concentrations. No other determinants were associated with β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations. Compared with other European studies, we found lower β-(1→3)-D-glucan loads and concentrations but higher endotoxin loads and concentrations suggesting a geographically determined different composition of Danish floor dust compared with other European regions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIndoor Air Online
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)245-59
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


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