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Determinants of Bacille Calmette-Guérin scarification in Danish children

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@article{e19a24dc4fd64fe59de8c16a64a341f5,
title = "Determinants of Bacille Calmette-Gu{\'e}rin scarification in Danish children",
abstract = "Background: Studies in low-income countries have shown that among Bacille Calmette-Gu{\'e}rin (BCG) vaccinated children, those who develop a BCG-scar have significantly better survival than those who do not develop a scar. In a Danish multicenter randomized clinical trial we assessed determinants for developing a BCG-scar and for BCG scar size following neonatal BCG vaccination.Methods: At three Danish hospitals, newborns were randomized 1:1 to BCG vaccination or no BCG vaccination. The infants were invited for a clinical examination at the ages of 3 and 13 months. At 13 months, the scar site was inspected and scar size measured. We investigated three groups of determinants; external, parental, and individual-level determinants on relative scar prevalence and differences in median scar sizes.Results: Among 2118 BCG vaccinated infants, 2039 (96 %) were examined at 13 months; 1857 of these (91 %) had developed a BCG-scar. Compared with Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre (85 %), Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet had a scar prevalence of 95 % (adjusted Prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.24 [CI 95 %: 1.18 to 1.30]); it was 93 % at Kolding Hospital (aPR 1.27 [CI 95 %: 1.19 to 1.35]). Increasing vaccine experience was positively associated with developing a scar and with scar size.Conclusion: Across multiple potential determinants of BCG scaring and size, logistical factors dominated. The results support that injection technique is an important determinant of developing a scar. Given the strong link between having a BCG scar and subsequent health, improved BCG vaccination technique could play a major role for child health.",
keywords = "BCG scar, BCG vaccine, Heterologous immunity, Non-specific effects",
author = "Jensen, {Trine M{\o}lb{\ae}k} and Jensen, {Signe Kjeldgaard} and Birk, {Nina Marie} and Andreas Rieckmann and Thomas Hoffmann and Benn, {Christine Stabell} and Jeppesen, {Dorthe Lisbeth} and Ole Pryds and Nissen, {Thomas N{\o}rrelykke}",
note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2020 The Authors Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.",
year = "2021",
month = jan,
day = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05757",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
pages = "e05757",
journal = "Heliyon",
issn = "2405-8440",
publisher = "Elsevier Ltd",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Determinants of Bacille Calmette-Guérin scarification in Danish children

AU - Jensen, Trine Mølbæk

AU - Jensen, Signe Kjeldgaard

AU - Birk, Nina Marie

AU - Rieckmann, Andreas

AU - Hoffmann, Thomas

AU - Benn, Christine Stabell

AU - Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

AU - Pryds, Ole

AU - Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke

N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Authors Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2021/1/4

Y1 - 2021/1/4

N2 - Background: Studies in low-income countries have shown that among Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated children, those who develop a BCG-scar have significantly better survival than those who do not develop a scar. In a Danish multicenter randomized clinical trial we assessed determinants for developing a BCG-scar and for BCG scar size following neonatal BCG vaccination.Methods: At three Danish hospitals, newborns were randomized 1:1 to BCG vaccination or no BCG vaccination. The infants were invited for a clinical examination at the ages of 3 and 13 months. At 13 months, the scar site was inspected and scar size measured. We investigated three groups of determinants; external, parental, and individual-level determinants on relative scar prevalence and differences in median scar sizes.Results: Among 2118 BCG vaccinated infants, 2039 (96 %) were examined at 13 months; 1857 of these (91 %) had developed a BCG-scar. Compared with Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre (85 %), Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet had a scar prevalence of 95 % (adjusted Prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.24 [CI 95 %: 1.18 to 1.30]); it was 93 % at Kolding Hospital (aPR 1.27 [CI 95 %: 1.19 to 1.35]). Increasing vaccine experience was positively associated with developing a scar and with scar size.Conclusion: Across multiple potential determinants of BCG scaring and size, logistical factors dominated. The results support that injection technique is an important determinant of developing a scar. Given the strong link between having a BCG scar and subsequent health, improved BCG vaccination technique could play a major role for child health.

AB - Background: Studies in low-income countries have shown that among Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated children, those who develop a BCG-scar have significantly better survival than those who do not develop a scar. In a Danish multicenter randomized clinical trial we assessed determinants for developing a BCG-scar and for BCG scar size following neonatal BCG vaccination.Methods: At three Danish hospitals, newborns were randomized 1:1 to BCG vaccination or no BCG vaccination. The infants were invited for a clinical examination at the ages of 3 and 13 months. At 13 months, the scar site was inspected and scar size measured. We investigated three groups of determinants; external, parental, and individual-level determinants on relative scar prevalence and differences in median scar sizes.Results: Among 2118 BCG vaccinated infants, 2039 (96 %) were examined at 13 months; 1857 of these (91 %) had developed a BCG-scar. Compared with Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre (85 %), Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet had a scar prevalence of 95 % (adjusted Prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.24 [CI 95 %: 1.18 to 1.30]); it was 93 % at Kolding Hospital (aPR 1.27 [CI 95 %: 1.19 to 1.35]). Increasing vaccine experience was positively associated with developing a scar and with scar size.Conclusion: Across multiple potential determinants of BCG scaring and size, logistical factors dominated. The results support that injection technique is an important determinant of developing a scar. Given the strong link between having a BCG scar and subsequent health, improved BCG vaccination technique could play a major role for child health.

KW - BCG scar

KW - BCG vaccine

KW - Heterologous immunity

KW - Non-specific effects

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85098658589&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05757

DO - 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05757

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 33474505

VL - 7

SP - e05757

JO - Heliyon

JF - Heliyon

SN - 2405-8440

IS - 1

M1 - e05757

ER -

ID: 61845496