Danish translation, adaptation and initial validation of the clinical assessment of modes questionnaires

Anette Enemark Larsen, Kristina Tomra Nielsen, Renee Taylor, Marc Sampedro Pilegaard, Eva Ejlersen Wæhrens


BACKGROUND: The Clinical Assessment of Modes questionnaires (CAMQs) determine clients' preferential modes for therapy (CAM-C1), clients' perception of modes used by the occupational therapist (OTs) during therapy (CAM-C2), or modes the OTs believed to have used (CAM-T). Access to valid CAMQs for Danish OTs and clients required a rigorous translation and cultural adaptation process.

OBJECTIVES: To translate and culturally adapt the CAMQs into Danish, examining face validity in a Danish context.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 10-step guideline for the process of translating and culturally adapting questionnaires was followed. Steps 1-6 included translation into Danish, steps 7-8 involved cognitive debriefing interviews and validation based on the Content Validity Index (CVI) analyzed using Kappa statistics. Steps 9-10 finalized the process.

RESULTS: CAMQs were translated into Danish. Based on cognitive debriefing interviews and CVIs involving 15 clients and 7 OTs, modifications regarding titles, layouts, instructions, wording and response categories were performed in all Danish CAMQs. The Item CVI and the modified kappa revealed that most participants had a high level of agreement on the cultural relevance.

CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Translated versions of the CAMQs have been culturally adapted into Danish. The current Danish versions seem culturally relevant and useable in Danish occupational therapy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalScandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)822-836
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Humans
  • Translations
  • Translating
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Denmark
  • Psychometrics


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