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Correlation of Increases in 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D During Vitamin D Therapy With Activation of CD4+ T Lymphocytes in HIV-1-Infected Males

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Background: In HIV-1-infected individuals, levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes are depleted and regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are elevated. In vitro studies have demonstrated effects of vitamin D on the growth and differentiation of these cells. We speculated whether supplementation with vitamin D could have an effect on CD4+ T lymphocytes or Tregs in HIV-1-infected males. Methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study that ran for 16 weeks and included 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. The participants were randomized to 1 of 3 daily treatments: (1) 0.5-1.0 µg calcitriol and 1200 IU (30 µg) cholecalciferol, (2) 1200 IU cholecalciferol, (3) placebo. Percentages of the following T-lymphocyte subsets were determined: naïve CD4+ and CD8+ cells, activated CD4+ and CD8+ cells, and CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127low Tregs. Furthermore 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone were measured. Results: No significant changes of the studied T-lymphocyte subsets occurred in the treatment groups compared to the placebo group. Increases in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were associated with increases in activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (P = .001) and Tregs (P = .01) in adjusted models. Changes in parathyroid hormone correlated inversely with Tregs (P = .02). Smokers had higher levels of naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes (37% vs 25%;P = .01), naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes (28% vs 19%; P = .03), and Tregs (9% vs 7%; P = .03). Conclusion: Cholecalciferol and calcitriol administered during 16 weeks did not change the levels of T-lymphocyte fractions compared to placebo. However, increases in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were associated with an expansion of activated CD4+ cells and Tregs.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHIV Clinical Trials
Volume13
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)162-70
Number of pages9
ISSN1528-4336
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

ID: 34858664