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Comparing effects of insulin analogues and human insulin on nocturnal glycaemia in hypoglycaemia-prone people with Type 1 diabetes

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AIMS: To assess the difference between analogue and human insulin with regard to nocturnal glucose profiles and risk of hypoglycaemia in people with recurrent severe hypoglycaemia.

METHODS: A total of 72 people [46 men, mean ± sd age 54 ± 12 years, mean ± sd HbA1c 65 ± 12 mmol/mol (8.1 ± 1.1%), mean ± sd duration of diabetes 30 ± 14 years], who participated in a 2-year randomized, crossover trial of basal-bolus therapy with insulin detemir/insulin aspart or human NPH insulin/human regular insulin (the HypoAna trial) were studied for 2 nights during each treatment. Venous blood was drawn hourly during sleep. Primary endpoints were nocturnal glucose profiles and occurrence of hypoglycaemia (blood glucose ≤ 3.9 mmol/l).

RESULTS: During insulin analogue treatment, the mean nocturnal plasma glucose level was significantly higher than during treatment with human insulin (10.6 vs 8.1 mmol/l). The fasting plasma glucose level was similar between the treatments. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia was registered during 41/101 nights (41%) in the human insulin arm and 19/117 nights (16%) in the insulin analogue arm, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 0.26 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.45; P<0.0001) with insulin analogue.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with insulin analogue reduces the occurrence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia assessed by nocturnal glucose profiles in people with Type 1 diabetes prone to severe hypoglycaemia. Nocturnal glucose profiles provide a more comprehensive assessment of clinical benefit of insulin regimens as compared to conventional recording of hypoglycaemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)625-631
Publication statusPublished - 2017

ID: 49676802