BACKGROUND: Venous blood oxygenation (Yv), which can be derived from venous blood T2 (T2 b), combined with oxygen-extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, is considered indicative for tissue viability and brain functioning and frequently assessed in patients with sickle cell disease. Recently, T2 -Prepared-Blood-Relaxation-Imaging-with-Inversion-Recovery (T2 -TRIR) was introduced allowing for simultaneous measurements of blood T2 and T1 (T1 b), potentially improving Yv estimation by overcoming the need to estimate hematocrit.
PURPOSE: To optimize and compare T2 -TRIR with T2 -relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) sequence.
STUDY TYPE: Prospective.
POPULATION: A total of 12 healthy volunteers (six female, 27 ± 3 years old) and 7 patients with sickle cell disease (five female, 32 ± 12 years old).
FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3 T; turbo field echo planar imaging (TFEPI), echo planar imaging (EPI), and fast field echo (FFE).
ASSESSMENT: T2 b, Yv, and OEF from TRUST and T2 -TRIR were compared and T2 -TRIR-derived T1 b was assessed. Within- and between-session repeatability was quantified in the controls, whereas sensitivity to hemodynamic changes after acetazolamide (ACZ) administration was assessed in the patients.
STATISTICAL TESTS: Shapiro-Wilk, one-sample and paired-sample t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, mixed linear model, Bland-Altman analysis and correlation analysis. Sidak multiple-comparison correction was performed. Significance level was 0.05.
RESULTS: In controls, T2 b from T2 -TRIR (70 ± 11 msec) was higher compared to TRUST (60 ± 8 msec). In patients, T2 b values were lower pre- compared to post-ACZ administration (TRUST: 80 ± 15 msec and 106 ± 23 msec and T2 -TRIR: 95 ± 21 msec and 125 ± 36 msec). Consequently, Yv and OEF were lower and higher pre- compared to post-ACZ administration (TRUST Yv: 68% ± 7% and 77% ± 8%, T2 -TRIR Yv: 74% ± 8% and 80% ± 6%, TRUST OEF: 30% ± 7% and 21% ± 8%, and T2 -TRIR OEF: 25% ± 8% and 18% ± 6%).
DATA CONCLUSION: TRUST and T2 -TRIR are reproducible, but T2 -TRIR-derived T2 b values are significantly higher compared to TRUST, resulting in higher Yv and lower OEF estimates. This bias might be considered when evaluating cerebral oxygen homeostasis.
EVIDENCE LEVEL: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.
- arterial spin labeling
- blood T-2
- oxygen extraction fraction
- Prospective Studies
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
- Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnostic imaging
- Young Adult
- Brain/diagnostic imaging
- T -TRIR
- blood T