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Circulating metabolites and molecular lipid species are associated with future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes

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BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in individuals with diabetes and improved understanding of its pathophysiology is needed. We investigated the association of a large panel of metabolites and molecular lipid species with future cardiovascular events in type 1 diabetes.

METHODS: The study included 669 individuals with type 1 diabetes. Non-targeted serum metabolomics and lipidomics analyses were performed using mass spectrometry. Data on cardiovascular events (cardiovascular mortality, coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial interventions) were obtained from Danish Health registries and analyzed by Cox hazards models. Metabolites and molecular lipid species were analyzed in univariate models adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). Metabolites and molecular lipid species fulfilling a p FDR  < 0.05 were subsequently analyzed in adjusted models including age, sex, hemoglobin A 1c, mean arterial pressure, smoking, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin excretion rate and previous cardiovascular disease. Analyses of molecular lipid species were further adjusted for triglycerides and statin use.

RESULTS: Of the included participants, 55% were male and mean age was 55 ± 13 years. Higher 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HR 1.35, CI [1.01-1.80], p = 0.04) and lower threonine (HR 0.81, CI [0.67-0.98] p = 0.03) were associated with development of cardiovascular events (n = 95). In lipidomics analysis, higher levels of three different species, diacyl-phosphatidylcholines (PC)(36:2) (HR 0.82, CI [0.70-0.98], p = 0.02), alkyl-acyl-phosphatidylcholines (PC-O)(34:2) (HR 0.76, CI [0.59-0.98], p = 0.03) and (PC-O)(34:3) (HR 0.75, CI [0.58-0.97], p = 0.03), correlated with lower risk of cardiovascular events, whereas higher sphingomyelin (SM)(34:1) (HR 1.32, CI [1.04-1.68], p = 0.02), was associated with an increased risk.

CONCLUSIONS: Circulating metabolites and molecular lipid species were associated with future cardiovascular events in type 1 diabetes. While the causal effect of these biomolecules on the cardiovascular system remains unknown, our findings support that omics-based technologies, although still in an early phase, may have the potential to unravel new pathways and biomarkers in the field of cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number135
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Volume21
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)135
ISSN1475-2840
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022. The Author(s).

    Research areas

  • Adult, Aged, Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis, Cholesterol, LDL, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications, Disease Progression, Female, Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Phosphatidylcholines, Risk Factors

ID: 79781022