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Chasing the Effects of Pre-Analytical Confounders - A Multicenter Study on CSF-AD Biomarkers

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  • Maria João Leitão
  • Inês Baldeiras
  • Sanna-Kaisa Herukka
  • Maria Pikkarainen
  • Ville Leinonen
  • Anja Hviid Simonsen
  • Armand Perret-Liaudet
  • Anthony Fourier
  • Isabelle Quadrio
  • Pedro Mota Veiga
  • Catarina Resende de Oliveira
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INTRODUCTION: Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers - Aβ42, Tau, and phosphorylated Tau (pTau) - have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Pre-analytical sample handling and storage play an important role in the reliable measurement of these biomarkers across laboratories.

AIM: In this study, we aim to surpass the efforts from previous studies, by employing a multicenter approach to assess the impact of less studied CSF pre-analytical confounders in AD-biomarkers quantification.

METHODS: Four different centers participated in this study and followed the same established protocol. CSF samples were analyzed for three biomarkers (Aβ42, Tau, and pTau) and tested for different spinning conditions [temperature: room temperature (RT) vs. 4°C; speed: 500 vs. 2000 vs. 3000 g], storage volume variations (25, 50, and 75% of tube total volume), as well as freezing-thaw cycles (up to five cycles). The influence of sample routine parameters, inter-center variability, and relative value of each biomarker (reported as normal/abnormal) was analyzed.

RESULTS: Centrifugation conditions did not influence biomarkers levels, except for samples with a high CSF total protein content, where either non-centrifugation or centrifugation at RT, compared to 4°C, led to higher Aβ42 levels. Reducing CSF storage volume from 75 to 50% of total tube capacity decreased Aβ42 concentration (within analytical CV of the assay), whereas no change in Tau or pTau was observed. Moreover, the concentration of Tau and pTau appears to be stable up to five freeze-thaw cycles, whereas Aβ42 levels decrease if CSF is freeze-thawed more than three times.

CONCLUSION: This systematic study reinforces the need for CSF centrifugation at 4°C prior to storage and highlights the influence of storage conditions in Aβ42 levels. This study contributes to the establishment of harmonized standard operating procedures that will help reducing inter-lab variability of CSF-AD biomarkers evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Volume6
Pages (from-to)153
ISSN1664-2295
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

ID: 45966726