Ischemia, both in the form of focal thromboembolic stroke and following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), causes upregulation of vasoconstrictive receptor systems within the cerebral vasculature. Descriptions regarding changes in purinergic signaling following ischemia are lacking, especially when the importance of purinergic signaling in regulating vascular tone is taken into consideration. This prompted us to evaluate changes in P2Y6 -mediated vasomotor reactivity in two different stroke models in rat. We used wire myography to measure changes in cerebral vasoreactivity to the P2Y6 agonist UDP-β-S following either experimental SAH or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Changes in receptor localization or receptor expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative flow cytometry. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion caused an increase in Emax when compared to sham (233.6 [206.1-258.5]% vs. 161.1 [147.1-242.6]%, p = 0.0365). No such change was seen following SAH. Both stroke models were associated with increased levels of P2Y6 receptor expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (90.94 [86.99-99.15]% and 93.79 [89.96-96.39]% vs. 80.31 [70.80-80.86]%, p = 0.021) and p = 0.039 respectively. There was no change in receptor localization in either of the stroke models. Based on these findings, we conclude that focal ischemic stroke increases vascular sensitivity to UDP-β-S by upregulating P2Y6 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells while experimental SAH did not induce changes in vasoreactivity in spite of increased P2Y6 receptor expression.
- Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
- Receptors, Purinergic P2
- Uridine Diphosphate/metabolism