Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective, widely used analgesics. For the past 2 decades, considerable attention has been focused on their cardiovascular safety. After early studies indicating an association between NSAID use and increased risks of heart failure and elevated blood pressure, subsequent studies found a link between NSAID use and an increased risk of thrombotic events. Selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inhibitors (also known as coxibs) have been associated with the greatest risk of adverse vascular effects but concern also relates to non-selective NSAIDs, especially those with strong COX2 inhibition such as diclofenac. Although NSAID use is discouraged in patients with cardiovascular disease, pain-relief medication is often required and, in the absence of analgesics that are at least as effective but safer, NSAIDs are frequently prescribed. Furthermore, non-prescription use of NSAIDs, even among people with underlying cardiovascular risks, is largely unsupervised and varies widely between countries. As concern mounts about the disadvantages of alternatives to NSAIDs (such as opioids) for pain management, the use of NSAIDs is likely to rise. Given that the pharmaceutical development pipeline lacks new analgesics, health-care professionals, patients and medicine regulatory authorities are focused on optimizing the safe use of NSAIDs. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence on the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs and present an approach for their use in the context of holistic pain management.
- Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects
- Cardiovascular Diseases
- Middle Aged
- Pain Management/adverse effects