Biomarkers for response to TIL therapy: a comprehensive review

Víctor Albarrán Fernández, Pablo Ballestín Martínez, Joachim Stoltenborg Granhøj, Troels Holz Borch, Marco Donia, Inge Marie Svane*

*Corresponding author for this work


Adoptive cell therapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has demonstrated durable clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma, substantiated by recent positive results of the first phase III trial on TIL therapy. Being a demanding and logistically complex treatment, extensive preclinical and clinical effort is required to optimize patient selection by identifying predictive biomarkers of response. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the current evidence regarding the potential impact of tumor-related factors (such as mutational burden, neoantigen load, immune infiltration, status of oncogenic driver genes, and epigenetic modifications), patient characteristics (including disease burden and location, baseline cytokines and lactate dehydrogenase serum levels, human leucocyte antigen haplotype, or prior exposure to immune checkpoint inhibitors and other anticancer therapies), phenotypic features of the transferred T cells (mainly the total cell count, CD8:CD4 ratio, ex vivo culture time, expression of exhaustion markers, costimulatory signals, antitumor reactivity, and scope of target tumor-associated antigens), and other treatment-related factors (such as lymphodepleting chemotherapy and postinfusion administration of interleukin-2).

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere008640
JournalJournal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 13 Mar 2024


  • Humans
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods
  • Melanoma/drug therapy
  • T-Lymphocytes/pathology
  • Biomarkers/metabolism


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