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Bile Spillage as a Risk Factor for Surgical Site Infection after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study of 1,001 Patients

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  • Thomas Peponis
  • Trine G Eskesen
  • Tomaz Mesar
  • Noelle Saillant
  • Haytham M A Kaafarani
  • D Dante Yeh
  • Peter J Fagenholz
  • Marc A de Moya
  • David R King
  • George C Velmahos
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BACKGROUND: Bile spillage (BS) occurs frequently during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, yet its impact on postoperative outcomes remains unknown. We hypothesized that BS increases the risk of surgical site infections (SSI) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

STUDY DESIGN: Patients older than 18, who were admitted to an academic hospital for a laparoscopic (or laparoscopic converted to open) cholecystectomy, from May 2010 to March 2017, were prospectively included. Open cholecystectomies were excluded. Patients were assessed clinically during hospitalization and 2 to 4 weeks after discharge. We compared those who had BS during the operation with those who did not. Our primary endpoint was the rate of SSI. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of SSI.

RESULTS: Of 1,001 patients, 49.9% underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, 20.9% for symptomatic cholelithiasis or biliary colic, 12.8% for gallstone pancreatitis, and 16.4% for other indications. Bile was spilled intraoperatively in 591 patients (59.0%), with hydrops noted in 10.5% and empyema in 14.6% of them. In 202 (20.2%) patients, BS was accompanied by stone spillage. Patients with BS were older (median age of 52 vs 42, p < 0.001) and were more frequently male (44.8% vs 27.8%, p < 0.001). Conversion to open was more likely in operations with BS (13.0% vs 4.4%, p < 0.001). Bile spillage was associated with a higher SSI rate (7.1% vs 2.4%, p = 0.001) and longer hospital stay (median of 3 vs 2 days, p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, BS, conversion to open, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score > 2 were independent predictors of SSI (odds ratios: 2.29, 2.46, and 2.1 respectively, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Bile spillage is associated with SSI, and surgeons should take extra caution to avoid it during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Volume226
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1030-1035
Number of pages6
ISSN1072-7515
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018

ID: 54652969