Association of Oxidative Stress-Induced Nucleic Acid Damage With Psychiatric Disorders in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Anders Jorgensen, Ida Bendixen Baago, Zerlina Rygner, Martin Balslev Jorgensen, Per Kragh Andersen, Lars Vedel Kessing, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Importance: Nucleic acid damage from oxidative stress (NA-OXS) may be a molecular mechanism driving the severely increased morbidity and mortality from somatic causes in adults with psychiatric disorders.

Objective: To systematically retrieve and analyze data on NA-OXS across the psychiatric disorder diagnostic spectrum.

Data Sources: The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched from inception to November 16, 2021. A hand search of reference lists of relevant articles was also performed.

Study Selection: Key study inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis were as follows: adult human study population, measurement of any marker of DNA or RNA damage from oxidative stress, and either a (1) cross-sectional design comparing patients with psychiatric disorders (any diagnosis) with a control group or (2) prospective intervention. Two authors screened the studies, and 2 senior authors read the relevant articles in full and assessed them for eligibility.

Data Extraction and Synthesis: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Two authors performed data extraction independently, and a senior coauthor was consulted in cases of disagreement. Data were synthesized with random-effects and multilevel meta-analyses.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The predefined hypothesis was that individuals with psychiatric disorders have increased NA-OXS levels. The main outcome was the standardized mean differences (SMDs) among patients and controls in nucleic acid oxidation markers compared across diagnostic groups. Analyses were divided into combinations of biological matrices and nucleic acids.

Results: Eighty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, comprising 205 patient vs control group comparisons and a total of 10 151 patient and 10 532 control observations. Overall, the data showed that patients with psychiatric disorders had higher NA-OXS levels vs controls across matrices and molecules. Pooled effect sizes ranged from moderate for urinary DNA markers (SMD = 0.44 [95% CI, 0.20-0.68]; P < .001) to very large for blood cell DNA markers (SMD = 1.12 [95% CI, 0.69-1.55; P < .001). Higher NA-OXS levels were observed among patients with dementias followed by psychotic and bipolar disorders. Sensitivity analyses excluding low-quality studies did not materially alter the results. Intervention studies were few and too heterogenous for meaningful meta-analysis.

Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that there is an association with increased NA-OXS levels in individuals across the psychiatric disorder diagnostic spectrum. NA-OXS may play a role in the somatic morbidity and mortality observed among individuals with psychiatric disorders.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJAMA Psychiatry
Volume79
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)920-931
Number of pages12
ISSN2168-622X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2022

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders/diagnosis
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Prospective Studies

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