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Association between smoking status assessed with plasma-cotinine and inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals

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OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a major contributor to mortality and morbidity in HIV-positive individuals. Our primary objective was to evaluate the association between smoking status determined by plasma cotinine (P-cotinine) concentration and inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative individuals.

METHODS: We studied eight inflammatory/endothelial biomarkers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tissue type plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (tPAI) and endothelin] in 105 HIV-positive individuals and 105 HIV-negative individuals matched on age, sex and self-reported smoking status. Smoking status was determined using P-cotinine (a concentration > 14 ng/mL was defined as demonstrating exposure to smoke). We used linear regression models to (1) examine the association between smoking status and inflammatory/endothelial biomarkers in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative individuals, and (2) to determine whether there was evidence to suggest that the impact of smoking status on the biomarkers differed between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals.

RESULTS: Of the eight biomarkers, smokers had increased hsCRP, sICAM-1 and MMP-9 concentrations irrespective of HIV status and increasing P-cotinine concentration was associated with increasing hsCRP concentration. We found no interaction between smoking and HIV status. HIV infection was associated with increased hsCRP, E-selectin, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and MMP-9 concentrations. Self-reported smoking status differed substantially from smoking status assessed with P-cotinine.

CONCLUSIONS: Several biomarkers were associated with smoking status and HIV status. However, our data do not indicate that the effects of smoking on the biomarkers differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHIV Medicine
Volume19
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)679-687
ISSN1464-2662
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

ID: 54881136