Association between polarity of first episode and solar insolation in bipolar I disorder

Michael Bauer*, Tasha Glenn, Eric D. Achtyes, Martin Alda, Esen Agaoglu, Kürşat Altınbaş, Ole A. Andreassen, Elias Angelopoulos, Raffaella Ardau, Memduha Aydin, Yavuz Ayhan, Christopher Baethge, Rita Bauer, Bernhard T. Baune, Ceylan Balaban, Claudia Becerra-Palars, Aniruddh P. Behere, Prakash B. Behere, Habte Belete, Tilahun BeleteGabriel Okawa Belizario, Frank Bellivier, Robert H. Belmaker, Francesco Benedetti, Michael Berk, Yuly Bersudsky, Şule Bicakci, Harriet Birabwa-Oketcho, Thomas D. Bjella, Conan Brady, Jorge Cabrera, Marco Cappucciati, Angela Marianne Paredes Castro, Wei Ling Chen, Eric Y.W. Cheung, Silvia Chiesa, Marie Crowe, Alessandro Cuomo, Sara Dallaspezia, Maria Del Zompo, Pratikkumar Desai, Seetal Dodd, Bruno Etain, Andrea Fagiolini, Frederike T. Fellendorf, Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Jess G. Fiedorowicz, Kostas N. Fountoulakis, Mark A. Frye, Pierre A. Geoffroy, Ana Gonzalez-Pinto, John F. Gottlieb, Paul Grof, Bartholomeus C.M. Haarman, Hirohiko Harima, Mathias Hasse-Sousa, Chantal Henry, Lone Høffding, Josselin Houenou, Massimiliano Imbesi, Erkki T. Isometsä, Maja Ivkovic, Sven Janno, Simon Johnsen, Flávio Kapczinski, Gregory N. Karakatsoulis, Mathias Kardell, Lars Vedel Kessing, Seong Jae Kim, Barbara König, Timur L. Kot, Michael Koval, Mauricio Kunz, Beny Lafer, Mikael Landén, Erik R. Larsen, Melanie Lenger, Ute Lewitzka, Rasmus W. Licht, Carlos Lopez-Jaramillo, Alan MacKenzie, Helle Østergaard Madsen, Simone Alberte Kongstad A. Madsen, Jayant Mahadevan, Agustine Mahardika, Mirko Manchia, Wendy Marsh, Monica Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Klaus Martiny, Yuki Mashima, Declan M. McLoughlin, Ybe Meesters, Ingrid Melle, Fátima Meza-Urzúa, Yee Ming Mok, Scott Monteith, Muthukumaran Moorthy, Gunnar Morken, Enrica Mosca, Anton A. Mozzhegorov, Rodrigo Munoz, Starlin V. Mythri, Fethi Nacef, Ravi K. Nadella, Takako Nakanotani, René Ernst Nielsen, Claire O'Donovan, Adel Omrani, Yamima Osher, Uta Ouali, Maja Pantovic-Stefanovic, Pornjira Pariwatcharakul, Joanne Petite, Andrea Pfennig, Yolanda Pica Ruiz, Marco Pinna, Maurizio Pompili, Richard Porter, Danilo Quiroz, Francisco Diego Rabelo-da-Ponte, Raj Ramesar, Natalie Rasgon, Woraphat Ratta-apha, Michaela Ratzenhofer, Maria Redahan, M. S. Reddy, Andreas Reif, Eva Z. Reininghaus, Jenny Gringer Richards, Philipp Ritter, Janusz K. Rybakowski, Leela Sathyaputri, Ângela M. Scippa, Christian Simhandl, Daniel Smith, José Smith, Paul W. Stackhouse, Dan J. Stein, Kellen Stilwell, Sergio Strejilevich, Kuan Pin Su, Mythily Subramaniam, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Kirsi Suominen, Andi J. Tanra, Yoshitaka Tatebayashi, Wen Lin Teh, Leonardo Tondo, Carla Torrent, Daniel Tuinstra, Takahito Uchida, Arne E. Vaaler, Eduard Vieta, Biju Viswanath, Maria Yoldi-Negrete, Oguz Kaan Yalcinkaya, Allan H. Young, Yosra Zgueb, Peter C. Whybrow

*Corresponding author for this work

Abstract

Objective: Circadian rhythm disruption is commonly observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Daylight is the most powerful signal to entrain the human circadian clock system. This exploratory study investigated if solar insolation at the onset location was associated with the polarity of the first episode of BD I. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area of the Earth. Methods: Data from 7488 patients with BD I were collected at 75 sites in 42 countries. The first episode occurred at 591 onset locations in 67 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Solar insolation values were obtained for every onset location, and the ratio of the minimum mean monthly insolation to the maximum mean monthly insolation was calculated. This ratio is largest near the equator (with little change in solar insolation over the year), and smallest near the poles (where winter insolation is very small compared to summer insolation). This ratio also applies to tropical locations which may have a cloudy wet and clear dry season, rather than winter and summer. Results: The larger the change in solar insolation throughout the year (smaller the ratio between the minimum monthly and maximum monthly values), the greater the likelihood the first episode polarity was depression. Other associated variables were being female and increasing percentage of gross domestic product spent on country health expenditures. (All coefficients: P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Increased awareness and research into circadian dysfunction throughout the course of BD is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110982
JournalJournal of Psychosomatic Research
Volume160
ISSN0022-3999
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2022

Keywords

  • Bipolar disorder
  • Circadian rhythm
  • Depression
  • Polarity
  • Solar insolation
  • Sunlight

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