OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the degree of ketosis, measured as plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) in fasting, was associated with changes in appetite feelings and plasma concentration of appetite-related hormones after weight loss.
METHODS: A total of 87 individuals with obesity (BMI: 36.5 ± 4.0 kg/m2 ; age: 42.4 ± 9.7 years; 39 males) underwent 8 weeks of a very low-energy diet. Body weight/composition, plasma concentration of βHB, and appetite-related hormones (active ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], total peptide YY, cholecystokinin [CCK], and insulin) and subjective appetite feelings were measured at baseline and week 9.
RESULTS: Participants lost 17.7 ± 4.1 kg and were ketotic (βHB: 1.24 ± 0.82 mmol/L in fasting) at week 9. A negative association was found between βHB in fasting at week 9 and changes in basal (r = -0.315, P = 0.003) and postprandial ghrelin concentration (r = -0.286, P = 0.008), and a positive association was found with the change in postprandial GLP-1 (r = 0.244, P = 0.025) and CCK (r = 0.228, P = 0.035). No association was seen between βHB in fasting and changes in peptide YY or subjective feelings of appetite.
CONCLUSIONS: βHB plasma concentration in fasting is associated with lower concentrations of the hunger hormone ghrelin and increased concentrations of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and CCK. Future studies should explore the molecular mechanisms by which βHB modulates the secretion of gut hormones.
|Journal||Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2020|