BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and has been investigated for psoriasis (PsO).
OBJECTIVES: This post hoc analysis examined baseline cardiovascular (CV) disease risk and its association with the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and malignancies in tofacitinib-treated patients with PsA and PsO.
DESIGN: Included three phase III/long-term extension (LTE) PsA trials and seven phase II/phase III/LTE PsO trials of patients receiving ⩾ 1 dose of tofacitinib.
METHODS: Incidence rates (IRs: patients with events/100 patient-years) for MACE and malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were determined in subgroups according to history of atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD), baseline 10-year risk of ASCVD (in patients without history of ASCVD), and baseline metabolic syndrome (MetS).
RESULTS: For patients with PsA (N = 783) and PsO (N = 3663), respectively, tofacitinib exposure was 2038 and 8950 patient-years (median duration: 3.0 and 2.4 years), and 40.9% and 32.7% had MetS. Excluding missing CV risk profile data, 51/773 (6.6%) and 144/3629 (4.0%) patients had history of ASCVD, and in patients without history of ASCVD, around 20.0% had intermediate/high baseline 10-year ASCVD risk. For PsA and PsO, IRs of MACE were greatest in those with history of ASCVD or high baseline 10-year ASCVD risk. For PsA, five of six patients with MACE had baseline MetS. Malignancy IRs in patients with PsA were greatest in those with intermediate/high baseline 10-year ASCVD risk. Of these, eight of nine patients with malignancies had baseline MetS. In the PsO cohort, IR of malignancies was notably greater with high versus low/borderline/intermediate baseline 10-year ASCVD risk.
CONCLUSION: In tofacitinib-treated patients with PsA/PsO, increased ASCVD risk and baseline MetS were associated with higher IRs for MACE and malignancies. Our results support assessing CV risk in patients with PsA/PsO and suggest enhanced cancer monitoring in those with increased ASCVD risk.
REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALSGOV: NCT01877668/NCT01882439/NCT01976364/NCT00678210/NCT01710046/NCT01241591/NCT01186744/NCT01276639/NCT01309737/NCT01163253.
PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: People who have psoriatic arthritis or psoriasis may have more heart-related problems and cancer if they have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease: A study in people with psoriatic arthritis or psoriasis receiving tofacitinib Why was this study done? • People with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and psoriasis (PsO) are more likely than the general population to have a disease affecting the heart and blood vessels [cardiovascular (CV) disease].• People who are more likely to have CV disease may also be more likely to have certain types of cancer.• Tofacitinib is a medicine to treat people with PsA and has been tested in people with PsO.• We wanted to know if the risk of CV disease affects the number of heart-related problems (including heart attack, stroke, or death) and cancer in people with PsA and PsO. What did the researchers do? • We used results from 10 clinical trials.• In these trials, people with PsA and PsO were taking tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice a day.• After the trials had ended, we measured people's risk of CV disease using a risk calculator. This risk calculator showed if they had a low, borderline, intermediate, or high risk of CV disease over the next 10 years. We also checked if they had had CV disease before treatment.• We checked if people had a group of conditions linked to CV disease: diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity.• We counted the cases of heart-related problems and cancer in people once they started taking tofacitinib. What did the researchers find? In people with PsA and PsO taking tofacitinib:• There were more cases of heart-related problems and cancer in people who had intermediate or high risk of CV disease.• There were more cases of heart-related problems in people who had had CV disease before.• More people with diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity had heart-related problems and cancer than people without those conditions. What do the findings mean? • It is important to measure risk and assess history of CV disease in people with PsA and PsO, including those taking tofacitinib.• We should test for cancer in people with high risk of CV disease.