Assessment of portal hypertension severity using machine learning models in patients with compensated cirrhosis

Jiří Reiniš, Oleksandr Petrenko, Benedikt Simbrunner, Benedikt S Hofer, Filippo Schepis, Marco Scoppettuolo, Dario Saltini, Federica Indulti, Tomas Guasconi, Agustin Albillos, Luis Téllez, Càndid Villanueva, Anna Brujats, Juan Carlos Garcia-Pagan, Valeria Perez-Campuzano, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Lucile Moga, Thomas Vanwolleghem, Wilhelmus J KwantenSven Francque, Jonel Trebicka, Wenyi Gu, Philip G Ferstl, Lise Lotte Gluud, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller, Stefan Kubicek, Mattias Mandorfer, Thomas Reiberger


BACKGROUND & AIMS: In individuals with compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD), the severity of portal hypertension (PH) determines the risk of decompensation. Invasive measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is the diagnostic gold standard for PH. We evaluated the utility of machine learning models (MLMs) based on standard laboratory parameters to predict the severity of PH in individuals with cACLD.

METHODS: A detailed laboratory workup of individuals with cACLD recruited from the Vienna cohort (NCT03267615) was utilised to predict clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, i.e., HVPG ≥10 mmHg) and severe PH (i.e., HVPG ≥16 mmHg). The MLMs were then evaluated in individual external datasets and optimised in the merged cohort.

RESULTS: Among 1,232 participants with cACLD, the prevalence of CSPH/severe PH was similar in the Vienna (n = 163, 67.4%/35.0%) and validation (n = 1,069, 70.3%/34.7%) cohorts. The MLMs were based on 3 (3P: platelet count, bilirubin, international normalised ratio) or 5 (5P: +cholinesterase, +gamma-glutamyl transferase, +activated partial thromboplastin time replacing international normalised ratio) laboratory parameters. The MLMs performed robustly in the Vienna cohort. 5P-MLM had the best AUCs for CSPH (0.813) and severe PH (0.887) and compared favourably to liver stiffness measurement (AUC: 0.808). Their performance in external validation datasets was heterogeneous (AUCs: 0.589-0.887). Training on the merged cohort optimised model performance for CSPH (AUCs for 3P and 5P: 0.775 and 0.789, respectively) and severe PH (0.737 and 0.828, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Internally trained MLMs reliably predicted PH severity in the Vienna cACLD cohort but exhibited heterogeneous results on external validation. The proposed 3P/5P online tool can reliably identify individuals with CSPH or severe PH, who are thus at risk of hepatic decompensation.

IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: We used machine learning models based on widely available laboratory parameters to develop a non-invasive model to predict the severity of portal hypertension in individuals with compensated cirrhosis, who currently require invasive measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient. We validated our findings in a large multicentre cohort of individuals with advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD) of any cause. Finally, we provide a readily available online calculator, based on 3 (platelet count, bilirubin, international normalised ratio) or 5 (platelet count, bilirubin, activated partial thromboplastin time, gamma-glutamyltransferase, choline-esterase) widely available laboratory parameters, that clinicians can use to predict the likelihood of their patients with cACLD having clinically significant or severe portal hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Hepatology
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)390-400
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Bilirubin
  • Elasticity Imaging Techniques
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Portal/complications
  • Liver Cirrhosis/complications
  • Platelet Count
  • Portal Pressure


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessment of portal hypertension severity using machine learning models in patients with compensated cirrhosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this