Artificial Intelligence for Automated DWI/FLAIR Mismatch Assessment on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Stroke: A Systematic Review

Abstract

We conducted this Systematic Review to create an overview of the currently existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods for Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI)/Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR)-mismatch assessment and to determine how well DWI/FLAIR mismatch algorithms perform compared to domain experts. We searched PubMed Medline, Ovid Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, and IEEE Xplore literature databases for relevant studies published between 1 January 2017 and 20 November 2022, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We assessed the included studies using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool. Five studies fit the scope of this review. The area under the curve ranged from 0.74 to 0.90. The sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.70 to 0.85 and 0.74 to 0.84, respectively. Negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy ranged from 0.55 to 0.82, 0.74 to 0.91, and 0.73 to 0.83, respectively. In a binary classification of ±4.5 h from stroke onset, the surveyed AI methods performed equivalent to or even better than domain experts. However, using the relation between time since stroke onset (TSS) and increasing visibility of FLAIR hyperintensity lesions is not recommended for the determination of TSS within the first 4.5 h. An AI algorithm on DWI/FLAIR mismatch assessment focused on treatment eligibility, outcome prediction, and consideration of patient-specific data could potentially increase the proportion of stroke patients with unknown onset who could be treated with thrombolysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2111
JournalDiagnostics
Volume13
Issue number12
ISSN2075-4418
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2023

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