Are the ICHD-3 criteria for headache attributed to idiopathic intracranial hypertension valid? Headache phenotyping and field-testing in newly diagnosed idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Headache burden is substantial in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The classification of idiopathic intracranial hypertension headache by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is an important tool for research and clinical purposes.

METHODS: We phenotyped headaches and tested sensitivity and specificity of the ICHD-3 criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension headache in a prospective cohort of patients suspected of idiopathic intracranial hypertension at two tertiary headache centers.

RESULTS: Sensitivity was 93% and specificity was 100% of ICHD-3 criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension-related headache validated in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (n = 140) and patients in whom idiopathic intracranial hypertension was suspected but disproven (n = 103). The phenotype of new/worsened headaches related to idiopathic intracranial hypertension suspicion was equally migraine-like (p = 0.76) and tension-type-like (p = 0.08). Lumbar puncture opening pressure was higher (p < 0.0001) and pulsatile tinnitus more frequent (p < 0.0001) in idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients, but neither improved the applicability of the headache criteria, nor did papilledema.

CONCLUSION: Headache phenotype is not distinct in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. ICHD-3 criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension headache are sensitive and specific, but simplicity can be improved without compromising accuracy. We propose that a new or worsened headache temporally related to active idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a sufficient criterion for idiopathic intracranial hypertension headache regardless of headache phenotype or accompanying symptoms, and that elements of idiopathic intracranial hypertension diagnostics (papilledema and opening pressure) be segregated from headache criteria.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04032379.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCephalalgia : an international journal of headache
Volume44
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)3331024241248210
ISSN0333-1024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Female
  • Male
  • Adult
  • Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis
  • Headache/diagnosis
  • Phenotype
  • Middle Aged
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • International Classification of Diseases
  • Prospective Studies

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