Antibiotic prophylaxis and complications following prostate biopsies - a systematic review

Nina Klemann, John Thomas Helgstrand, Klaus Brasso, Ben Vainer, Peter Iversen, Martin Andreas Røder

7 Citations (Scopus)


INTRODUCTION: Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies (TRUS-gb) are associated with both mild and serious complications. Prophylactic antibiotics reduce the risk of septicaemia and mortality; however, no international consensus exists on the timing and duration of antibiotics, including the optimal drug strategy. We reviewed the current evidence supporting use of prophylactic antibiotics and the risk of complications following prostate biopsies.

METHODS: This review was drafted in accordance with the Prisma Guidelines. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched.

RESULTS: A total of 19 eligible trials were identified. One trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of infection after biopsy and reported that oral ciprofloxacin as either a single-dose or a three-day regimen was superior to oral chloramphenicol and norfloxacin. Of three studies investigating the timing of the first dose of antibiotic, one study found that administration 24 h before biopsy versus administration immediately before reduced the relative risk of post-biopsy infection by 55%. Seven studies compared different durations of antibiotic prophylaxis. None showed any benefit from continuing prophylaxis beyond a single dose or a one-day regimen.

CONCLUSION: Evidence supporting a specific antibiotic regimen for TRUS-gb prophylaxis is scarce. Widespread use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis may be associated with an increase in resistant Escherichia coli strains, posing a potentially major health issue in the future.  .

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA5323
JournalDanish Medical Bulletin (Online)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis
  • Bacterial Infections
  • Drug Administration Routes
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Prostate
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Urine
  • Journal Article
  • Review


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