Anorexia nervosa: Outpatient treatment and medical management

Stein Frostad, Mette Bentz


Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disabling, costly and potentially deadly illness. Treatment failure and relapse are common after completing treatment, and a substantial proportion of patients develop severe and enduring AN. The time from AN debut to the treatment initiation is normally unreasonably long. Over the past 20 years there has been empirical support for the efficacy of several treatments for AN. Moreover, outpatient treatment with family-based therapy or individual psychotherapy is associated with good outcomes for a substantial proportion of patients. Early intervention improves outcomes and should be a priority for all patients. Outpatient treatment is usually the best format for early intervention, and it has been demonstrated that even patients with severe or extreme AN can be treated as outpatients if they are medically stable. Inpatient care is more disruptive, more costly, and usually has a longer waiting list than does outpatient care. The decision as to whether to proceed with outpatient treatment or to transfer the patient for inpatient therapy may be difficult. The core aim of this opinion review is to provide the knowledge base needed for performing safe outpatient treatment of AN. The scientific essentials for outpatient treatment are described, including how to assess and manage the medical risks of AN and how to decide when transition to inpatient care is indicated. The following aspects are discussed: early intervention, outpatient treatment of AN, including outpatient psychotherapy for severe and extreme AN, how to determine when outpatient treatment is safe, and when transfer to inpatient healthcare is indicated. Emerging treatments, ethical issues and outstanding research questions are also addressed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalWorld journal of psychiatry
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)558-579
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2022


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