Anatomic and Functional Imaging Using Row-Column Arrays

Jorgen Arendt Jensen, Mikkel Schou, Lasse Thurmann Jorgensen, Borislav G Tomov, Matthias Bo Stuart, Marie Sand Traberg, Iman Taghavi, Sigrid Huesebo Oygaard, Martin Lind Ommen, Kitty Steenberg, Erik Vilain Thomsen, Nathalie Sarup Panduro, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, Charlotte Mehlin Sorensen


Row-column (RC) arrays have the potential to yield full 3-D ultrasound imaging with a greatly reduced number of elements compared to fully populated arrays. They, however, have several challenges due to their special geometry. This review article summarizes the current literature for RC imaging and demonstrates that full anatomic and functional imaging can attain a high quality using synthetic aperture (SA) sequences and modified delay-and-sum beamforming. Resolution can approach the diffraction limit with an isotropic resolution of half a wavelength with low sidelobe levels, and the field of view can be expanded by using convex or lensed RC probes. GPU beamforming allows for three orthogonal planes to be beamformed at 30 Hz, providing near real-time imaging ideal for positioning the probe and improving the operator's workflow. Functional imaging is also attainable using transverse oscillation and dedicated SA sequence for tensor velocity imaging for revealing the full 3-D velocity vector as a function of spatial position and time for both blood velocity and tissue motion estimation. Using RC arrays with commercial contrast agents can reveal super-resolution imaging (SRI) with isotropic resolution below [Formula: see text]. RC arrays can, thus, yield full 3-D imaging at high resolution, contrast, and volumetric rates for both anatomic and functional imaging with the same number of receive channels as current commercial 1-D arrays.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)2722-2738
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Contrast Media
  • Motion
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Ultrasonography/methods


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