OBJECTIVE: Visceral fat mass (VFM) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and malignancy; however, normative data are limited. The aim of this study was to provide reference data for VFM from a large, apparently healthy Caucasian adult population.

METHODS: Volunteers aged 20 to 93 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study had a standardized whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan performed using the iDXA (GE Lunar). Total and regional fat mass was measured. VFM was quantified using the CoreScan application.

RESULTS: A total of 1277 participants were included (708 women, mean [SD], age: 56  [19] years, height: 1.66 [0.07] m, BMI: 24.64 [4.31] kg/m2 ; and 569 men, age: 57 [18] years, height: 1.80 [0.07] m, BMI: 25.99 [3.86] kg/m2 ). Increased VFM was positively correlated with age in both sexes. Men had significantly higher VFM in mass (g) after normalization to body size (m2 ) and total fat mass (p < 0.001). VFM increased more in women with high values of the android/gynoid ratio.

CONCLUSIONS: Normative data of VFM from a large, healthy Danish cohort aged 20 to 93 years are presented. VFM increased with age in both sexes, but men had significantly higher VFM compared with women with the same BMI, body fat percentage, and fat mass index.

Original languageEnglish
JournalObesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)1953-1961
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adult
  • Body Composition
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging
  • Longevity
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors


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