Objective. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a promising method for modulating brain activity and excitability with variable results to date. To minimize electric (E-)field strength variability, we introduce the 2-sample prospective E-field dosing (2-SPED) approach, which uses E-field strengths induced by tES in a first population to individualize stimulation intensity in a second population.Approach. We performed E-field modeling of three common tES montages in 300 healthy younger adults. First, permutation analyses identified the sample size required to obtain a stable group average E-field in the primary motor cortex (M1), with stability being defined as the number of participants where all group-average E-field strengths ± standard deviation did not leave the population's 5-95 percentile range. Second, this stable group average was used to individualize tES intensity in a second independent population (n = 100). The impact of individualized versus fixed intensity tES on E-field strength variability was analyzed.Main results. In the first population, stable group average E-field strengths (V/m) in M1 were achieved at 74-85 participants, depending on the tES montage. Individualizing the stimulation intensity (mA) in the second population resulted in uniform M1 E-field strength (all p < 0.001) and significantly diminished peak cortical E-field strength variability (all p < 0.01), across all montages.Significance. 2-SPED is a feasible way to prospectively induce more uniform E-field strengths in a region of interest. Future studies might apply 2-SPED to investigate whether decreased E-field strength variability also results in decreased physiological and behavioral variability in response to tES.
- Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods
- transcranial electrical stimulation (tES)
- computational dosimetry
- finite element method (FEM)
- electric field (E-field) modeling
- transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
- noninvasive brain stimulation