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Achromobacter spp. in a Cohort of Non-Selected Pre-and Post-Lung Transplant Recipients

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Achromobacter is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and is associated with increased mortality. Little is known about Achromobacter spp. in the lung transplant recipient (LTXr) population. We aimed at describing rates of Achromobacter spp. infection in LTXr prior to, in relation to, and after transplantation, as well as all-cause mortality proportion in infected and uninfected LTXr. We included 288 adult LTXr who underwent lung transplantation (LTX) between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019 in Denmark. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at regular intervals starting two weeks after transplantation. Positive cultures of Achromobacter spp. were identified in nationwide microbiology registries, and infections were categorized as persistent or transient, according to the proportion of positive cultures. A total of 11 of the 288 LTXr had transient (n = 7) or persistent (n = 4) Achromobacter spp. infection after LTX; CF was the underlying disease in 9 out of 11 LTXr. Three out of the four patients, with persistent infection after LTX, also had persistent infection before LTX. The cumulative incidence of the first episode of infection one year after LTX was 3.8% (95% CI: 1.6–6.0). The incidence rates of transient and persistent infection in the first year after LTX were 27 (12–53) and 15 (5–37) per 1000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. The all-cause mortality proportion one year after LTX was 27% in the Achromobacter spp. infected patients and 12% in the uninfected patients (p = 0.114). Achromobacter spp. mainly affected LTXr with CF as the underlying disease and was rare in non-CF LTXr. Larger studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes of Achromobacter spp. in LTXr.

Original languageEnglish
Article number181
JournalPathogens
Volume11
Issue number2
Number of pages11
ISSN2076-0817
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Conflicts of Interest: O.R. received a grant from The Research Foundation of Rigshospitalet related to this work. Outside of this current work, M.P. received a grant from Roche, non-financial support from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Mallinckrodt, Novartis, G.S.K., and Astra-Zeneca not related to this work. Outside of this current work, SDN received unrestricted research grants from Novo Nordisk Foundation and Independent Research Fund (FSS). Outside of this current work, T.Q. has received grants and personal fees from Chiesi Pharma, Rigshospitalets Research Council, The Danish CF Foundation, the University of Queensland, the Belgian CF Foundation, AstraZenica A/S, Zambon Netherlands, and Vertex Pharmaceuticals. C.G.C., H.H.L.S. and H.K.J. declare no conflicts of interest.

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the Danish National Research Foundation, grant number DNRF126, and the Research Foundation of Rigshospitalet.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Research areas

  • Achromobacter, Cystic fibrosis, Incidence, Lung transplantation, Mortality, Solid organ transplantation, cystic fibrosis, mortality, solid organ transplantation, lung transplantation, incidence

ID: 74693885