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The Capital Region of Denmark - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
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A structured review on the female urethral anatomy and innervation with an emphasis on the role of the urethral longitudinal smooth muscle

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A damaged sphincteric unit or support system, unstable urethral deformability or damaged sensory innervation are all potential causes of a dysfunctional urethral sphincter. With the current improvement in pharmacological targets and urodynamic understanding, studies have begun quantifying individual structures and their importance in closure pressure and consequently urethral continence. However, when it comes to the function of the longitudinal urethral smooth muscle layer, there is currently no consensus. The intent of this structured review is to critically examine literature regarding the female urethral anatomy and closure mechanism. We hypothesized that the longitudinal smooth muscle is a prerequisite for sufficient urethral closure and not merely involved during micturition. Overall opinions on a dysfunctional closure mechanism are controversial. Nonetheless, basic mechanics may be applied to understand simple urodynamics. With the assumption of longitudinal muscles forming a plug when contracted, this could have a substantial effect on the continence mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Urogynecology Journal
Volume31
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)63-71
Number of pages9
ISSN0937-3462
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

ID: 59180796