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A randomised trial comparing the effect of exercise training and weight loss on microvascular function in coronary artery disease

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BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular function is associated with outcome and is reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. We compared the effect of aerobic interval training (AIT) and weight loss on coronary flow reserve (CFR) and peripheral vascular function in revascularised obese CAD patients.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy non-diabetic patients (BMI 28-40 kg × m(-2), age 45-75 years) were randomised to 12 weeks' AIT (three weekly sessions lasting 38 min with ≈ 16 min at 85-90% of VO2peak) or low energy diet (LED, 800-1000 kcal/day). Per protocol adherence was defined by training-attendance ≥ 60% and weight loss ≥ 5%, respectively. CFR was assessed by Doppler echocardiography of the LAD. Peripheral vascular function was assessed by arterial tonometry as reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index. Most participants had impaired CFR with a mean CFR of 2.38 (SD 0.59). Twenty-six AIT and 24 LED participants completed the study per protocol with valid CFR measurements. AIT resulted in a 10.4% improvement in VO2peak and LED in a 10.6% weight loss (between group differences both P<0.001). CFR increased by 0.26 (95%CI 0.04;0.48) after AIT and by 0.39 (95%CI 0.13;0.65) after LED without significant between-group difference (-0.13 (95%CI -0.45;0.20)). RHI and augmentation index remained unchanged after both interventions (P>0.50). Intention-to-treat analyses showed similar results.

CONCLUSIONS: 12 weeks' AIT and LED increased CFR by comparable magnitude; thus both interventions might impact prognosis of CAD through improvement of coronary microvascular function.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01724567.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Volume185
Pages (from-to)229-35
Number of pages7
ISSN0167-5273
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015

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