A national needs assessment to identify technical procedures in plastic surgery for simulation-based training

Anders Klit, Lars Konge, Leizl Joy Nayahangan, Jørgen Hesselfeldt-Nielsen


Medical simulation is not developed and integrated into plastic surgery unlike other surgical specialties despite the procedures being complex and require practice. First step in enhancing simulation in plastic surgery is to clarify the need among peers. The objective of the study was to identify and prioritize the technical procedures that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum for residency training in plastic surgery. A panel of participants with key roles in the Danish plastic surgery specialist training program was appointed. Participation was voluntary. A national need assessment study was performed using a three-round Delphi process to collect information from the participants. In round 1, participants reported all the procedures that a newly qualified specialist in plastic surgery should be able to perform. In round 2, participants replied to a survey exploring the frequency of the procedures, the number of surgeons performing the procedure, the risk or discomfort for patients treated by an inexperienced surgeon and the feasibility of training the procedure in simulation, resulting in a preliminary ranking of procedures. In round 3, participants eliminated and reprioritized the identified procedures according to importance. Thirty-five of 37 agreed to enter the expert panel. The response rate was 97%, 86% and 86% for rounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Twenty-nine of 136 procedures identified in round 1 reached the final prioritized list of procedures relevant for simulation training in plastic surgery.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Issue number1-6
Pages (from-to)137-144
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Delphi process
  • needs assessment
  • Simulation-based training
  • technical procedures


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