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A case of thrombocytopenia and multiple thromboses after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against SARS-CoV-2

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@article{4aa6b877c8df4faeaec5795f1ce21e91,
title = "A case of thrombocytopenia and multiple thromboses after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against SARS-CoV-2",
abstract = "Recently, reports of severe thromboses, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage in persons vaccinated with the chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, AZD1222, Vaxzevria; Oxford/AstraZeneca) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have emerged. We describe an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman who developed thrombocytopenia, ecchymosis, portal vein thrombosis, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis the second week after she received the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Extensive diagnostic workup for thrombosis predispositions showed heterozygosity for the prothrombin mutation, but no evidence of myeloproliferative neoplasia or infectious or autoimmune diseases. Her only temporary risk factor was long-term use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Although both the prothrombin mutation and use of OCPs predispose to portal and cerebral vein thrombosis, the occurrence of multiple thromboses within a short time and the associated pattern of thrombocytopenia and consumption coagulopathy are highly unusual. A maximum 4T heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) score and a positive immunoassay for anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies identified autoimmune HIT as a potential pathogenic mechanism. Although causality has not been established, our case emphasizes the importance of clinical awareness. Further studies of this potentially new clinical entity have suggested that it should be regarded as a vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.",
keywords = "Adult, COVID-19, COVID-19 Vaccines, Female, Humans, SARS-CoV-2, Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced, Thrombosis/etiology, Vaccination",
author = "{T{\o}lb{\o}ll S{\o}rensen}, {Anne Louise} and Magalie Rolland and Jacob Hartmann and Harboe, {Zitta Barrella} and Casper Roed and Jensen, {Tomas {\O}} and Lilian Kolte and {El Fassi}, Daniel and Jens Hillings{\o} and Aneta Radziwon-Balicka and Soyka, {Robert Sebastian} and Klaus Hansen and Nikolai Kirkby and Goetze, {Jens P} and Mikkel Gybel-Brask and Lein{\o}e, {Eva Birgitte} and Anne-Mette Hvas and Peter Kampmann and Jakob Stensballe",
note = "{\textcopyright} 2021 by The American Society of Hematology.",
year = "2021",
month = jun,
day = "22",
doi = "10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004904",
language = "English",
volume = "5",
pages = "2569--2574",
journal = "Blood advances",
issn = "2473-9529",
publisher = "American Society of Hematology",
number = "12",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - A case of thrombocytopenia and multiple thromboses after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against SARS-CoV-2

AU - Tølbøll Sørensen, Anne Louise

AU - Rolland, Magalie

AU - Hartmann, Jacob

AU - Harboe, Zitta Barrella

AU - Roed, Casper

AU - Jensen, Tomas Ø

AU - Kolte, Lilian

AU - El Fassi, Daniel

AU - Hillingsø, Jens

AU - Radziwon-Balicka, Aneta

AU - Soyka, Robert Sebastian

AU - Hansen, Klaus

AU - Kirkby, Nikolai

AU - Goetze, Jens P

AU - Gybel-Brask, Mikkel

AU - Leinøe, Eva Birgitte

AU - Hvas, Anne-Mette

AU - Kampmann, Peter

AU - Stensballe, Jakob

N1 - © 2021 by The American Society of Hematology.

PY - 2021/6/22

Y1 - 2021/6/22

N2 - Recently, reports of severe thromboses, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage in persons vaccinated with the chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, AZD1222, Vaxzevria; Oxford/AstraZeneca) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have emerged. We describe an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman who developed thrombocytopenia, ecchymosis, portal vein thrombosis, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis the second week after she received the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Extensive diagnostic workup for thrombosis predispositions showed heterozygosity for the prothrombin mutation, but no evidence of myeloproliferative neoplasia or infectious or autoimmune diseases. Her only temporary risk factor was long-term use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Although both the prothrombin mutation and use of OCPs predispose to portal and cerebral vein thrombosis, the occurrence of multiple thromboses within a short time and the associated pattern of thrombocytopenia and consumption coagulopathy are highly unusual. A maximum 4T heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) score and a positive immunoassay for anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies identified autoimmune HIT as a potential pathogenic mechanism. Although causality has not been established, our case emphasizes the importance of clinical awareness. Further studies of this potentially new clinical entity have suggested that it should be regarded as a vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.

AB - Recently, reports of severe thromboses, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage in persons vaccinated with the chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, AZD1222, Vaxzevria; Oxford/AstraZeneca) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have emerged. We describe an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman who developed thrombocytopenia, ecchymosis, portal vein thrombosis, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis the second week after she received the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Extensive diagnostic workup for thrombosis predispositions showed heterozygosity for the prothrombin mutation, but no evidence of myeloproliferative neoplasia or infectious or autoimmune diseases. Her only temporary risk factor was long-term use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Although both the prothrombin mutation and use of OCPs predispose to portal and cerebral vein thrombosis, the occurrence of multiple thromboses within a short time and the associated pattern of thrombocytopenia and consumption coagulopathy are highly unusual. A maximum 4T heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) score and a positive immunoassay for anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies identified autoimmune HIT as a potential pathogenic mechanism. Although causality has not been established, our case emphasizes the importance of clinical awareness. Further studies of this potentially new clinical entity have suggested that it should be regarded as a vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.

KW - Adult

KW - COVID-19

KW - COVID-19 Vaccines

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - SARS-CoV-2

KW - Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced

KW - Thrombosis/etiology

KW - Vaccination

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85108710400&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004904

DO - 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004904

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 34137813

VL - 5

SP - 2569

EP - 2574

JO - Blood advances

JF - Blood advances

SN - 2473-9529

IS - 12

ER -

ID: 66399024