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Vasopressin and Vasopressin Antagonists in Heart Failure

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftReviewForskningpeer review

DOI

  1. Favorable five-year outcomes for heart failure diagnosed in younger patients without severe comorbidity

    Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

  2. Effect of Heart Rate Reserve on Exercise Capacity in Patients Treated with a Continuous Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

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Despite the introduction of multiple new pharmacological agents over the past three decades in the field of heart failure (HF), overall prognosis remains poor. Hyponatremia is prevalent in HF patients and has been suggested as a contributor to poor response to standard therapy. Elevated levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), a peptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus, play a role in development of hyponatremia, and AVP and its surrogate, copeptin, are related to changes in osmolality, hemodynamics, neuro-hormones as well as in overall outcome in HF patients. Of current pharmacological interest are the selective and non-selective vasopressin receptor antagonists (VRAs), which inhibit vasoconstriction and cardiac remodeling mediated by the V1a receptors in smooth blood vessels, and water retention (increased urine osmolality and decreased water excretion) by increasing aquaporin-2 water channels mediated by the V2 receptors in the renal collecting tubules. The optimal use of VRAs is yet to be determined, especially in patients with congestive HF. Although long-term effects on improvement in mortality have not been shown in the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial, the only long-term outcome trial to date, many short-term studies indicate beneficial aquaretic- and hemodynamic-effects of the VRAs. In contrast to loop diuretics, these new agents tend to increase urine flow and the excretion of electrolyte-free water (so-called aquaresis) in patients with HF, without substantial changes in sodium or potassium excretion. This chapter reviews the role of AVP and copeptin in HF, and the treatment potential of VRAs in HF.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
BogserieHandbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Vol/bind243
Sider (fra-til)307-328
Antal sider22
ISSN0171-2004
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2017

ID: 52619205