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Use of ketogenic diets in the treatment of central nervous system diseases: a systematic review

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@article{d6c20879f4ae42dcb0df5f891db92e78,
title = "Use of ketogenic diets in the treatment of central nervous system diseases: a systematic review",
abstract = "Background: Studies have consistently shown that patients with epilepsy could benefit from ketogenic diets (KDs). Recent evidence suggests that KD could be used in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the use and efficacy of KD, modified Atkins diet (MAD) and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet in infants, children, adolescents, and adults with CNS diseases. Methods: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Main databases, i.e. EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO, were searched on 4 December 2019. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included and only if they reported KD, MCT or MAD interventions on patients with CNS diseases. Results: Twenty-four publications were eligible for inclusion (n = 1221). Twenty-one publications concerned epilepsy, two concerned Alzheimer{\textquoteright}s disease (AD), and one concerned Parkinson{\textquoteright}s disease (PD). All studies regarding epilepsy reported of seizure reduction compared to baseline. MCT did not significantly change regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with AD, but MAD significantly improved memory at 6 weeks (p =.03). KD significantly improved motor and nonmotor functions in patients with PD at 8 weeks (p <.001). There was a trend towards fewer adverse effects in MAD compared to KD. Conclusion: In conclusion, various forms of KDs seem tolerable and effective as part of the treatment for epilepsy, AD and PD, although more investigation concerning the mechanism, efficacy and adverse events is necessary.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Child, Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted, Diet, Ketogenic, Epilepsy, Humans, Infant, Parkinson Disease, Seizures, Treatment Outcome, central nervous system disease, Ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, medium-chain triglyceride diet",
author = "Christensen, {Magnus G} and Jakob Damsgaard and Anders Fink-Jensen",
year = "2021",
month = jan,
doi = "10.1080/08039488.2020.1795924",
language = "English",
volume = "75",
pages = "1--8",
journal = "Nordic Journal of Psychiatry",
issn = "0803-9488",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Use of ketogenic diets in the treatment of central nervous system diseases

T2 - a systematic review

AU - Christensen, Magnus G

AU - Damsgaard, Jakob

AU - Fink-Jensen, Anders

PY - 2021/1

Y1 - 2021/1

N2 - Background: Studies have consistently shown that patients with epilepsy could benefit from ketogenic diets (KDs). Recent evidence suggests that KD could be used in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the use and efficacy of KD, modified Atkins diet (MAD) and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet in infants, children, adolescents, and adults with CNS diseases. Methods: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Main databases, i.e. EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO, were searched on 4 December 2019. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included and only if they reported KD, MCT or MAD interventions on patients with CNS diseases. Results: Twenty-four publications were eligible for inclusion (n = 1221). Twenty-one publications concerned epilepsy, two concerned Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and one concerned Parkinson’s disease (PD). All studies regarding epilepsy reported of seizure reduction compared to baseline. MCT did not significantly change regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with AD, but MAD significantly improved memory at 6 weeks (p =.03). KD significantly improved motor and nonmotor functions in patients with PD at 8 weeks (p <.001). There was a trend towards fewer adverse effects in MAD compared to KD. Conclusion: In conclusion, various forms of KDs seem tolerable and effective as part of the treatment for epilepsy, AD and PD, although more investigation concerning the mechanism, efficacy and adverse events is necessary.

AB - Background: Studies have consistently shown that patients with epilepsy could benefit from ketogenic diets (KDs). Recent evidence suggests that KD could be used in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the use and efficacy of KD, modified Atkins diet (MAD) and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet in infants, children, adolescents, and adults with CNS diseases. Methods: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Main databases, i.e. EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO, were searched on 4 December 2019. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included and only if they reported KD, MCT or MAD interventions on patients with CNS diseases. Results: Twenty-four publications were eligible for inclusion (n = 1221). Twenty-one publications concerned epilepsy, two concerned Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and one concerned Parkinson’s disease (PD). All studies regarding epilepsy reported of seizure reduction compared to baseline. MCT did not significantly change regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with AD, but MAD significantly improved memory at 6 weeks (p =.03). KD significantly improved motor and nonmotor functions in patients with PD at 8 weeks (p <.001). There was a trend towards fewer adverse effects in MAD compared to KD. Conclusion: In conclusion, various forms of KDs seem tolerable and effective as part of the treatment for epilepsy, AD and PD, although more investigation concerning the mechanism, efficacy and adverse events is necessary.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Child

KW - Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted

KW - Diet, Ketogenic

KW - Epilepsy

KW - Humans

KW - Infant

KW - Parkinson Disease

KW - Seizures

KW - Treatment Outcome

KW - central nervous system disease

KW - Ketogenic diet

KW - modified Atkins diet

KW - medium-chain triglyceride diet

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85089065103&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/08039488.2020.1795924

DO - 10.1080/08039488.2020.1795924

M3 - Review

C2 - 32757903

VL - 75

SP - 1

EP - 8

JO - Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

JF - Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

SN - 0803-9488

IS - 1

ER -

ID: 60949953