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TSC1 and TSC2 regulate cilia length and canonical Hedgehog signaling via different mechanisms

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Vis graf over relationer

Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate multiple cellular signaling pathways, including Hedgehog (HH), Wingless/Int (WNT) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Similarly, primary cilia have been implicated in regulation of mTOR signaling, in which Tuberous Sclerosis Complex proteins 1 and 2 (TSC1/2) negatively regulate protein synthesis by inactivating the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) at energy limiting states. Here we report that TSC1 and TSC2 regulate Smoothened (SMO)-dependent HH signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Reduced SMO-dependent expression of Gli1 was demonstrated in both Tsc1-/-and Tsc2-/-cells, and we found that Tsc1 is required for TGF-β induced phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 and subsequent expression of the HH signaling effector and transcription factor GLI2. Hedgehog signaling was restored in Tsc1-/-cells after exogenous expression of Gli2, whereas rapamycin restored HH signaling in Tsc2-/-cells. Furthermore, we observed that Tsc1-/-MEFs display significantly elongated cilia, whereas cilia in Tsc2-/-MEFs were shorter than normal. The elongated cilium phenotype of Tsc1-/-MEFs is likely due to increased mTORC1-dependent autophagic flux observed in these cells, as both the autophagic flux and the cilia length phenotype was restored by rapamycin. In addition, ciliary length control in Tsc1-/-MEFs was also influenced by reduced expression of Gli2, which compromised expression of Wnt5a that normally promotes cilia disassembly. In summary, our results support distinct functions of Tsc1 and Tsc2 in cellular signaling as the two genes affect ciliary length control and HH signaling via different mechanisms.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftCellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Vol/bind75
Udgave nummer14
Sider (fra-til)2663-2680
ISSN1420-682X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2 feb. 2018

ID: 52791353