Triple trouble: Uncovering the risks and benefits of early fetal reduction in trichorionic triplets in a large national Danish cohort study

Steffen Ernesto Kristensen*, Charlotte Kvist Ekelund, Puk Sandager, Finn Stener Jørgensen, Eva Hoseth, Lene Sperling, Helle Jeanette Zingenberg, Tina Duelund Hjortshøj, Kasper Gadsbøll, Alan Wright, David Wright, Andrew Mclennan, Karin Sundberg, Olav Bjørn Petersen

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde
4 Citationer (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Triplet pregnancies are high risk for both the mother and the infants. The risks for infants include premature birth, low birthweight, and neonatal complications. Therefore, the management of triplet pregnancies involves close monitoring and may include interventions, such as fetal reduction, to prolong the pregnancy and improve outcomes. However, the evidence of benefits and risks associated with fetal reduction is inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of trichorionic triplet pregnancies with and without fetal reduction and with nonreduced dichorionic twin pregnancies and primary singleton pregnancies.

STUDY DESIGN: All trichorionic triplet pregnancies in Denmark, including those with fetal reduction, were identified between 2008 and 2018. In Denmark, all couples expecting triplets are informed about and offered fetal reduction. Pregnancies with viable fetuses at the first-trimester ultrasound scan and pregnancies not terminated were included. Adverse pregnancy outcome was defined as a composite of miscarriage before 24 weeks of gestation, stillbirth at 24 weeks of gestation, or intrauterine fetal death of 1 or 2 fetuses.

RESULTS: The study cohort was composed of 317 trichorionic triplet pregnancies, of which 70.0% of pregnancies underwent fetal reduction to a twin pregnancy, 2.2% of pregnancies were reduced to singleton pregnancies, and 27.8% of pregnancies were not reduced. Nonreduced triplet pregnancies had high risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes (28.4%), which was significantly lower in triplets reduced to twins (9.0%; difference, 19.4%, 95% confidence interval, 8.5%-30.3%). Severe preterm deliveries were significantly higher in nonreduced triplet pregnancies (27.9%) than triplet pregnancies reduced to twin pregnancies (13.1%; difference, 14.9%, 95% confidence interval, 7.9%-21.9%). However, triplet pregnancies reduced to twin pregnancies had an insignificantly higher risk of miscarriage (6.8%) than nonreduced twin pregnancies (1.1%; difference, 5.6%; 95% confidence interval, 0.9%-10.4%).

CONCLUSION: Triplet pregnancies reduced to twin pregnancies had significantly lower risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, severe preterm deliveries, and low birthweight than nonreduced triplet pregnancies. However, triplet pregnancies reduced to twin pregnancies were potentially associated with a 5.6% increased risk of miscarriage.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Vol/bind229
Udgave nummer5
Sider (fra-til)555.e1-555.e14
ISSN0002-9378
DOI
StatusUdgivet - nov. 2023

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