INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing minimally invasive procedures under a light conscious sedation perceive pain and anxiety. Hypnosis used together with analgesics has been investigated in numerous studies.
AIMS AND METHODS: To assess the effectiveness of hypnotic analgesia in management of pain, anxiety, analgesic consumption, procedure length and adverse events in adults undergoing minimally invasive procedures. Clinical controlled trials in which hypnosis was used together with pharmacological analgesia compared to pharmacological analgesia alone during invasive procedures were included. Seven databases were searched. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed by two reviewers using a standardised instrument for critical appraisal from Joanna Briggs Institute, 'Meta-Analysis of statistics assessment and review Instrument'. Meta-analyses using the review manager version 5.3 software were conducted on procedure length and adverse events. Results for pain, anxiety and analgesics were synthesised in narrative summaries. Conduction of the review adheres to the PRISMA checklist.
RESULTS: Ten studies comprising 1,365 participants were included. A reduction in the consumption of pain medication was found between 21%-86% without aggravating pain intensity and anxiety. In few studies, significant reduction in pain intensity and anxiety was found. Meta-analysis including seven studies revealed a small beneficial effect on reducing procedure length. A meta-analysis on adverse events showed no significant reduction. Statistical heterogeneity was found among the studies included.
CONCLUSION: For patients undergoing invasive procedures, hypnotic analgesia was effective in reducing consumption of analgesics. Only a slight effect was, however, found on experienced anxiety and pain intensity. It did not prolong the procedure and was safe to provide.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Hypnosis is recommended as pain management for adults during invasive procedures. A reduced consumption of pain medication potentially has a major impact on monitoring and observation of patients following the procedure, thus improving patient safety and reducing resource consumption.
|Tidsskrift||Journal of Clinical Nursing|
|Status||Udgivet - dec. 2019|