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Synbiotics Combined with Glutamine Stimulate Brain Development and the Immune System in Preterm Pigs

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


  1. Gut and immune effects of bioactive milk factors in preterm pigs exposed to prenatal inflammation

    Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

  2. Pathogenesis and biomarkers for necrotizing enterocolitis: Getting any closer?

    Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

  • Anders D Andersen
  • Duc Ninh Nguyen
  • Louise Langhorn
  • Ingrid B Renes
  • Ruurd M van Elburg
  • Anita Hartog
  • Sebastian Tims
  • Yohan van de Looij
  • Per T Sangild
  • Thomas Thymann
Vis graf over relationer

Background: Preterm infants are born with an immature gut, brain, and immune system, predisposing them to short- and long-term complications.

Objective: We hypothesized that a milk diet supplemented with pre- and probiotics (i.e. synbiotics) and glutamine would improve gut, brain, and immune maturation in preterm neonates, using preterm pigs as a model.

Methods: Preterm pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc, n = 40, delivered by c-section at 90% of gestation) were reared individually until day 23 after birth under highly standardized conditions. Piglets in the intervention group (PPG, n = 20) were fed increasing volumes of bovine milk supplemented with prebiotics (short-chain galacto- and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides 9:1, 4-12 g/L), probiotics (Bifidobacterium breve M16-V, 3 × 109 CFU/d) and l-glutamine [0.15-0.30 g/(kg · d)], and compared with pigs fed bovine milk with added placebo compounds as control (CON, n = 20). Clinical, gastrointestinal, immunological, cognitive, and neurological endpoints were measured.

Results: The PPG pigs showed more diarrhea but weight gain, body composition, and gut parameters were similar between the groups. Cognitive performance, assessed in a T-maze, was significantly higher in PPG pigs (P < 0.01), whereas motor function and exploratory interest were similar between the groups. Using ex vivo diffusion imaging, the orientation dispersion index in brain cortical gray matter was 50% higher (P = 0.04), and fractional anisotropy value was 7% lower (P = 0.05) in PPG pigs compared with CON pigs, consistent with increased dendritic branching in PPG. In associative fibers, radial diffusivity was lower and fractional anisotropy was higher in PPG pigs compared with CON pigs (all P < 0.05), while measures in the internal capsule showed a tendency towards reduced radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity (both P = 0.09). On day 23 pigs in the PPG group showed higher blood leukocyte numbers (+43%), neutrophil counts (+100%), and phagocytic rates (+24%), relative to CON, all P < 0.05.

Conclusion: Preterm pigs supplemented with Bifidobacterium breve, galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides, and l-glutamine showed enhanced neuronal and immunological development. The findings indicate the potential for targeted nutritional interventions after preterm birth, to support development of important systems such as immunity and brain.

TidsskriftThe Journal of Nutrition
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)36-45
Antal sider10
StatusUdgivet - 1 jan. 2019

ID: 59421723