BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen and a dreaded cause of bacteraemia with 30-day mortality rates ranging from 14 to 69%. The purpose of this cohort study was to evaluate outcomes of S. maltophilia bacteraemia, at Rigshospitalet, a tertiary hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark.
METHODS: We included all patients with a blood culture positive for S. maltophilia, from January 1, 2015 to April 1, 2020. We extracted data on antimicrobial susceptibility, treatment, central venous catheter intervention and severe haematological disease.
RESULTS: Sixty-one cases of S. maltophilia bacteraemia were identified. The overall 90-day mortality was 18%. Sixty percent of patients had a central venous catheter intervention performed. Seventy-nine percent of patients were treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Patients with central venous catheter intervention had significantly better survival than those without (HR: 0.16 [95% CI: 0.03-0.73]). Severe haematological disease and patients, who received intensive care unit (ICU) care, were at higher risk of death than other patients (HR: 5.93 [95% CI: 1.18 - 29.94] and HR: 8.37 [95% CI: 1.79 - 39.20], respectively). We found no evidence that any antibiotic regime was superior with regard to 90-day mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence to support a change in the current standard-of-care regimen of TMP/SMX and CVC removal. Larger clinical trials are needed to guide such recommendations.