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Smoking during pregnancy reduces vitamin D levels in a Finnish birth register cohort

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DOI

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OBJECTIVE: Maternal vitamin D level in pregnancy may have implications for both the mother and fetus. Deficiency of vitamin D has been linked to several pregnancy complications and fetal skeletal health. Smoking has been associated with reduced serum level of the vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D).

DESIGN: A nested case-control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort, a population-based cohort which includes first-trimester sera from 98 % of pregnancies in Finland since 1987. The selection consisted of women with uncomplicated pregnancies. We studied serum concentration of 25(OH)D in 313 non-smoking and forty-six self-reported smoking pregnant women.

SETTING: We hypothesize that pregnant smokers may have an increased risk of low 25(OH)D levels especially during winter months.

PARTICIPANTS: A control group from an unpublished pregnancy complication study consisting of 359 uncomplicated pregnancies. Individuals who reported that they do not smoke were considered 'non-smokers' (n 313) and those who reported continued smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy were considered 'smokers' (n 46).

RESULTS: Smokers had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D irrespective of sampling time (P<0·0001). Furthermore, during the low sun-exposure season, only 14 % of smokers met the guideline level of 40 nmol/l for serum 25(OH)D in comparison with 31 % of non-smokers.

CONCLUSIONS: Expectant mothers who smoke have an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency during low sun-exposure months in northern regions. Further studies are needed to assess the associated risks for maternal and fetal health as well as possible long-term implications for the infant.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftPublic Health Nutrition
Vol/bind23
Udgave nummer7
Sider (fra-til)1273-1277
Antal sider5
ISSN1368-9800
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2020

ID: 62292969