Simulation-based VATS resection of the five lung lobes: a technical skills test

21 Citationer (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) lobectomy is an advanced procedure and to maximize patient safety it is important to ensure the competency of thoracic surgeons before performing the procedure. The objective of this study was to investigate validity evidence for a virtual reality simulator-based test including multiple lobes of the lungs.

METHOD: VATS experts from the department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, worked with Surgical Science (Gothenburg, Sweden) to develop VATS lobectomy modules for the LapSim® virtual reality simulator covering all five lobes of the lungs. Participants with varying experience in VATS were recruited and classified as either novice, intermediate, or experienced surgeons. Each participant performed VATS lobectomy on the simulator for three different randomly chosen lobes. Nine predefined simulator metrics were automatically recorded on the simulator.

RESULTS: Twenty-two novice, ten intermediate, and nine experienced surgeons performed the test resulting in a total of 123 lobectomies. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) found significant differences between the three groups for parameters: blood loss (p < 0.001), procedure time (p < 0.001), and total instrument path length (p = 0.03). These three metrics demonstrated high internal consistency and significant test-retest reliability was found between each of them. Relevant pass/fail levels were established for each of the three metrics, 541 ml, 30 min, and 71 m, respectively.

CONCLUSION: This study provides validity evidence for a simulator-based test of VATS lobectomy competence including multiple lobes of the lungs. The test can be used to ensure basic competence at the end of a simulation-based training program for thoracic surgery trainees.

TidsskriftSurgical Endoscopy
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)1234-1242
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - feb. 2022


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