BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease [CKD] has been suggested to increase the risk of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, falls, and fractures. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the occurrence of osteoporosis, falls, and fractures in patients with sarcopenia and CKD, and to explore the possible association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis, falls, and fractures in patients with CKD.
METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline. The protocol was registered at PROSPERO. The systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed [1966 to present] and EMBASE [1974 to present] on December 4, 2020. We searched for articles on CKD and sarcopenia, and then we selected them with outcomes such as osteoporosis, falls, and bone fractures. The risk of bias was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
RESULTS: Five studies were eligible and included. No studies reported the occurrence of osteoporosis, falls, and bone fractures in patients with CKD and sarcopenia. Sarcopenia had a significant association with low bone mineral density [BMD] and osteoporosis in patients with CKD. The risk of bias assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale varied from 3-7 stars [median of 7]. Due to the included studies' heterogeneity, a meta-analysis could not be conducted.
CONCLUSION: The occurrence of osteoporosis, falls, and bone fractures in patients with sarcopenia and CKD could not be assessed from the included studies, but an association between sarcopenia and decreased BMD/osteoporosis in patients with CKD was found. The potential mechanistic link between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in CKD needs to be investigated in future studies.