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S100A8/A9 is an important host defence mediator in neuropathic foot ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Chronic wounds and in particular diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a growing clinical challenge, but the underlying molecular pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. Recently, we reported reduced levels of the immunomodulating and antimicrobial S100A8/A9 in non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs), while another study found increased S100A8/A9 in DFUs. To clarify these apparently contradictory findings, we compared S100A8/A9 as well as an inducer, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and selected innate immune response mediators in wound fluids from non-healing DFUs and VLUs with healing wounds. Wound fluids were collected from neuropathic DFUs (n = 6) and VLUs (n = 9) of median 2-year duration, and split-thickness skin graft donor site wounds (n = 10) by standardized method. None of the patients had ischaemic extremities or clinically infected wounds. LPS was determined by limulus amoebocyte lysate test, and S100A8/A9, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunospecific quantitative assays. LPS levels were median 8.7 (interquartile range 5.4-21.2) ng/ml in DFUs compared with 121 (22-2000) ng/ml in VLUs. S100A8/A9 was higher (p = 0.020) in DFUs [718 (634-811) µg/ml] than in VLUs [303 (252-533) µg/ml]. Neither G-CSF nor IL-10 wound fluid levels differed significantly between the chronic wound groups. VEGF levels correlated with LPS (r = 0.758, p = 0.011, n = 10) and were higher (p = 0.024) in VLU wound fluids. LPS (p < 0.0001), S100A8/A9 (p = 0.005), G-CSF (p = 0.003), IL-10 (p = 0.003) and VEGF (p = 0.005) were increased in chronic wound fluids combined compared with the sterile donor site wound fluids. The protein alterations in the wounds were not reflected in the patients' sera. Low S100A8/A9 levels may contribute to poor wound healing in colonized chronic wounds with striking difference between DFUs and VLUs.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftArchives of Dermatological Research
Vol/bind308
Udgave nummer5
Sider (fra-til)347-55
Antal sider9
ISSN0340-3696
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jul. 2016

ID: 49736058