Risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in isolated single umbilical artery diagnosed at the mid-trimester anomaly scan: a large Danish retrospective cohort study

Anne-Sofie Ahlers Rechnagel*, Finn Stener Jørgensen, Charlotte Kvist Ekelund, Helle Zingenberg, Olav Bjørn Petersen, Kasper Pihl

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) confirmed at the mid-trimester anomaly scan and adverse pregnancy outcome and congenital malformations with up to 10 years postnatal follow up.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 116,501 singleton pregnancies consecutively enrolled in first trimester screening for aneuploidies and mid-trimester anomaly scan at three University Hospitals in the Capital Region of Copenhagen, Denmark.Data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database (2008-2017) were verified by manually scrutinizing pre- and postnatal records. The main outcomes of interest were intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm delivery, cesarean section and unrecognized pre- and postnatal congenital malformations.

RESULTS: In total, 775 pregnancies with iSUA were identified. Isolated SUA were associated with a significantly increased risk of IUFD (OR 4.16, 95% CI 2.06-8.44), SGA < 3rd centile (aOR 2.41, 95% 1.85-3.14) and SGA < 10th centile (aOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.53-2.21), but not with preterm delivery or cesarean section. The laterality of the missing artery was not associated with SGA. In total, 4.3% of pregnancies with iSUA had unrecognized congenital malformations. 1.5% with iSUA had congenital cardiovascular malformations, which were considered minor.

CONCLUSION: Isolated SUA is associated with IUFD and SGA, supporting surveillance during third trimester. If, during the mid-trimester scan, the sonographer achieves thorough, extended cardiac views and finds no additional malformation other than SUA, fetal echocardiography seems not to be needed.

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