BACKGROUND: Little is known about the subsequent risk of stroke and recurrence of IE for patients surviving infective endocarditis (IE) with a residual vegetation at discharge.
METHODS: Patients were consecutively included in the East Danish Endocarditis Registry from 2002 to 2012. We included patients undergoing medical treatment only during IE admission who were discharged alive. Size of residual vegetation was assessed by echocardiography at discharge and patients were categorized according to median length of residual vegetation. Using multivariable adjusted Cox Proportional hazard analysis, we assessed the associated risk of stroke and recurrence of IE between study groups.
RESULTS: Among 915 IE patients, 305 were included after selection criteria were applied, 151 patients without residual vegetation, 73 patients with 1-5 mm residual vegetation, and 81 patients with >5 mm residual vegetation. We identified an increased associated risk of stroke for patients with 1-5 mm and > 5 mm residual vegetation, HR = 0.88 (95% CI: 0.26-2.94) and HR = 2.95 (95% CI:1.18-7.34) compared with patients without residual vegetation. No difference was seen between groups for the associated risk of recurrence of IE, HR = 1.39 (95% CI: 0.91-2.13) and HR = 1.38 (95% CI: 0.91-2.10) for patients with a residual vegetation 1-5 mm and > 5 mm compared with patients without residual vegetation.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients surviving IE with a residual vegetation > 5 mm had an increased associated risk of stroke compared with patients without residual vegetation. These findings provide new perspectives on a patient group sparsely describe, suggesting a potential benefit of therapy among patients surviving IE with a residual vegetation > 5 mm.